Was sind und was sollen Bibliothekarische Datenformate. 3. Aufl. 1999


Sprachen

Namen und Codes

Stand: Okt. 2007


Es gibt viel mehr Sprachen als man glaubt, obwohl viele schon ausgestorben sind und dauernd welche aussterben.
Wenn beim Katalogisieren die Sprache der Dokumente erfaßt werden soll, damit man hinterher dem OPAC-Benutzer anbieten kann, die Suche auf bestimmte Sprachen einzuschränken, dann verwendet man am besten dafür normierte Codes.
Neben Deutsch und Englisch sind hierzulande andere Sprachen zahlenmäßig weit weniger bedeutend. Wenn man aber bedenkt, daß für so ziemlich jede Sprache eine Sondersammelgebietsbibliothek zuständig ist, und daß idealerweise die Katalogisate international austauschbar sein sollen, dann braucht man eine umfassende Liste jedenfalls derjenigen Sprachen, in denen es Publikationen gibt. In Deutschland wurde bislang eine in dieser Hinsicht unbefriedigende DIN-Liste verwendet. Der GBV hat sich inzwischen von DIN auf ISO umgestellt. International ist die ISO-639/2 gebräuchlich, die auch mit den Codes der Library of Congress (also den USMARC-Daten) weitgehend, aber nicht vollständig übereinstimmt. (Abweichungen in Klammern hinter dem ISO-Code. Die LC hat vor, diese Abweichungen abzubauen, dazu existiert eine Änderungsliste.) In manchen Fällen gibt es zwei ISO-Codes (Normvariante B bzw. T), diese sind dann durch / getrennt nebeneinander zu sehen.
Nachfolgend sind beide Listen zusammengefaßt:

Die Liste vereinigt die DIN 2335 mit den Language Codes der ISO-639/2.
In der GBV-Liste (11.5.2006) gibt es zur DIN-Liste einige zusätzliche Codes, diese wurden mit aufgenommen und mit + gekennzeichnet.

Hinzugenommen wurden Sprachen, die (soweit feststellbar) weltweit von mehr als eine Million Menschen gesprochen werden, und/oder in einem Staat als Amts- oder offizielle Sprache fungieren. (Weil sich zeigte, dass beide Listen in dieser Hinsicht unvollständig waren, andererseits aber Sprachen enthielten, die nur von wenigen 100 Menschen gesprochen werden. Ob das nun vollständig ermittelt wurde, sei dahingestellt - sicher nicht. Aber besser als die derzeitig verwendete DIN-Liste dürfte diese schon sein.)

Ermittelt wurden auch abweichende Schreibweisen dieser Sprachen, wobei die SWD-Ansetzungen in jedem Fall berücksichtigt wurden und in der Liste durch ein  *  vor dem Namen kenntlich gemacht wurden. Auch die Originalbezeichnungen wurden in vielen Fällen mit erfaßt. Gerade das Auffinden seltener Sprachen  wird sicher erleichtert, wenn man nicht nur die amtliche Bezeichnung in der Liste findet.

In der Spalte S ist die ungefähre Anzahl der Sprecher angegeben, in Millionen. Das Verbreitungsgebiet steht in eckigen Klammern. Die ISO-Codes mit 4 Buchstaben wurden erfunden, damit jede Sprache einen Code hat, und um die Liste mit DIN kompatibel zu machen, denn es gab auf der ansonsten kleineren DIN-Liste einige Sprachen, die keinen ISO-Code hatten. Nur diejenigen Zeilen, die vorn einen dreibuchstabigen Code haben, sind also offizielle ISO-Sprachen, bis auf die mit q beginnenden (mit Ausnahme von que).

Das wohl umfassendste Nachschlagewerk für Sprachen im WWW ist Ethnologue, wo über 7.200 Sprachen erfaßt und schematisch beschrieben sind (Stand 2007). Darin werden gleichfalls dreistellige Codes verwendet, die aber mit ISO nichts zu tun haben. Diese Datenbank weist viele Namensformen der Sprachen nach, unter anderem stets die Originalnamen, jedoch nicht die deutschen Bezeichnungen.

Aufgenommen wurden auch die momentan noch sehr provisorischen 28 Codes für deutsche Dialekte, diese beginnen alle mit q.

Tip: Wenn man schnell einmal Beispiele von Texten in exotischen Sprachen sehen will, eignet sich gut eine große Sammlung von Vaterunser-Texten, die inzwischen Versionen in über 1200 Sprachen und Dialekten enthält, darunter auch zahlreiche Kunstsprachen. Auch zu empfehlen: eine Sammlung "Der kleine Prinz in 100 Sprachen" an der Uni Halle.

Es gibt diese Liste auch als Datenbank, die mit dem alcarta Datenbank-Browser benutzt werden kann (kostenlos). Die Datenbank enthält zusätzlich 3.500 Datensätze der SWD, die mit "Sprache" zu tun haben, darunter auch die meisten Programmiersprachen.

ISO      DIN   S   Name
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abaluhyia --> Luhya
abk Abchasisch (Abkhazian = Caucasian) [North Caucasus]
abkhaze --> Abkhazian
abk Abkhazian (Abkhazian = Caucasian) [North Caucasus]
accadien --> Akkadian
ace 3 *Aceh-Sprache (Achinese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
Acehisch --> Achinese
ace 3 Achinese (Achinese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
ach 2 *Acholi-Sprache (Acoli = Nilotic) [Uganda]
ach 2 Acoli (Acoli = Nilotic) [Uganda]
ada *Adangme (Adangme) [Ghana]
Adanme --> *Adangme
ady Adygai (Adygai = Caucasian)
ady Adygai (Adygai = Caucasian)
egy 43 *Ägyptisch (Egyptian (Ancient)) [Egypt]
eth at+ *Äthiopische Sprachen (Ethiopic = Semitic)
Äthiosemitische Sprachen --> Ethiopic
aar aa 1 Afar (Afar = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
Afghanisch --> Pushto
afh Afrihili (Artificial language) (Afrihili (Artificial language))
afr af 10 Afrikaans (Afrikaans = Indo-European; Germanic) [*South Africa]
afa ab+ Afro-Asiatic (Other) (Afro-Asiatic (Other))
Agikuyu --> Kikuyu
ain ai+ 0 Ainu (Ainu = Isolate? / Palaeo-Asian) [Kamtschatka, Japan]
ain ai+ 0 *Ainu-Sprache (Ainu = Isolate? / Palaeo-Asian) [Kamtschatka, Japan]
Akamba --> *Kamba
aka 7 Akan (Akan = Niger-Congo; Kwa; Volta-Comoe) [Ghana]
Akan <Sprache im engeren Sinn> --> Akan
aka 7 *Akan-Sprache (Akan = Niger-Congo; Kwa; Volta-Comoe) [Ghana]
twi tw 3 Akan-Sprache (Twi = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire]
Akikuyu --> Kikuyu
Akka-Sprache --> Akan
akk ak+ Akkadian (Akkadian = Semitic) [Mesopotamia]
akk ak+ *Akkadisch (Akkadian = Semitic) [Mesopotamia]
Akkra --> Ga
albanais --> Albanian
alb/sqi sq 5 Albanian (Albanian = Indo-European; Albanian) [*Albania, Balkan Europe]
alb/sqi sq 5 *Albanisch (Albanian = Indo-European; Albanian) [*Albania, Balkan Europe]
aléoute --> Aleut
ale ae+ Aleut (Aleut = Eskimoan)
ale ae+ *Aleutisch (Aleut = Eskimoan)
alg al+ *Algonkin-Sprachen (Algonquian languages) [North America]
alg al+ Algonquian languages (Algonquian languages) [North America]
ajm Aljamia (Aljamia) [Spain (Spanish in arab. Script)]
allemand --> German
allemand --> German, Middle High (ca. 1050-1500)
allemand --> German, Old High (ca. 750-1050)
eth(gez) ge+ *Altäthiopisch (Geez (Ethiopic)) [Ethiopia]
alt tu+ Altaic (Altaic = Altaic; Turkik) [Altai mountains]
tut Altaic (Other) (Altaic (Other))
alt tu+ *Altaisch (Altaic = Altaic; Turkik) [Altai mountains]
tut *Altaische Sprachen (Andere) (Altaic (Other))
Altbulgarisch --> Church Slavic
ang an+ *Altenglisch (English, Old (ca. 450-1100))
fro fs+ Altfranzösisch (French, Old (842-ca.1400))
Altgriechisch --> Greek, Ancient (to 1453)
Althebräisch --> Old Hebrew
goh go+ *Althochdeutsch (German, Old High (ca. 750-1050))
sga *Altirisch (Irish, Old (to 900))
kaw Altjavanisch (Kawi) [East India]
Altkirchenslawisch --> Church Slavic
non np+ *Altnordisch (Old Norse)
Altnorwegisch --> Old Norse
peo pe+ *Altpersisch (Old Persian (ca. 600-400 B.C.))
pro pz+ *Altprovenzalisch (Provencal, Old (to 1500))
Altsyrisch --> Syriac, Modern
Altusbekisch --> Chagatai
Alunda --> *Lunda
Alur --> Acoli
Ambundu --> Kimbundu
American Indian languages --> North American Indian (Other)
Amerikanische Sprachen --> North American Indian (Other)
Amerindianisch --> North American Indian (Other)
Amerindisch --> North American Indian (Other)
amh am 20 Amharic (Amharic = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Ethiopia]
amharique --> Amharic
amh am 20 *Amharisch (Amharic = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Ethiopia]
Amoy --> Ho-lo-oe
Angelsächsisch --> English, Old (ca. 450-1100)
anp Angika (Angika) [India (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh)]
anp Angika (Angika) [India (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh)]
anglais --> English
anglais moyen --> English, Middle (1100-1500)
angl ag+ Anglo-Norman (Anglo-Norman)
anglo-saxon --> English, Old (ca. 450-1100)
angl ag+ Anglonormannisch (Anglo-Norman)
Annamitisch --> Vietnamese
Antarbedi --> Braj
Antardesii --> Braj
Anterbedi --> Braj
apa Apache languages (Apache languages = Athapascan)
apa *Apachen-Sprache (Apache languages = Athapascan)
Apatschisch --> Apache languages
arabe --> Arabic
ara ar 208 Arabic (Arabic = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Ägypten, N.Africa, Middle East]
ara ar 208 *Arabisch (Arabic = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Ägypten, N.Africa, Middle East]
arg Aragonese Spanish (Aragonese Spanish = Indo-European; Romance) [Spain]
arg *Aragonesisch (Aragonese Spanish = Indo-European; Romance) [Spain]
arc ah+ *Aramäisch (Aramaic)
arc ah+ Aramaic (Aramaic)
araméen --> Aramaic
arp Arapaho (Arapaho = Algonquian)
arp *Arapaho-Sprache (Arapaho = Algonquian)
arn au+ Araucanian (Araucanian = Isolate) [South Chili, Argentina]
arn au+ *Arauka-Sprachen (Araucanian = Isolate) [South Chili, Argentina]
Araukanisch --> Araucanian
arw Arawak (Arawak) [South America]
arw *Arawak-Sprachen (Arawak) [South America]
Arawakische Sprachen --> Arawak
arm/hye hy 5 Armenian (Armenian = Indo-European; Armenian) [*Armenia]
arm/hye hy 5 *Armenisch (Armenian = Indo-European; Armenian) [*Armenia]
rup ao+ Aromanian (Aromanian = Indo-European; Romance)
rup ao+ *Aromunisch (Aromanian = Indo-European; Romance)
art Artificial (Other) (Artificial (Other))
artificielles --> Artificial (Other)
aze az 14 *Aserbaidschanisch (Azerbaijani = Altaic; Turkik) [*Azerbaijan, Iran]
Aseri --> Azerbaijani
assamais --> Assamese
asm as 15 Assamese (Assamese = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Bangladesh]
asm as 15 *Assamesisch (Assamese = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Bangladesh]
assy ax+ Assyrian (Assyrian)
assy ax+ Assyrisch (Neuostaramäisch) (Assyrian)
Aswanik --> Soninke
Atchinesisch --> Achinese
ath Athapascan languages (Athapascan languages = Na-Dene)
ath *Athapaskische Sprachen (Athapascan languages = Na-Dene)
qya Auslandsdeutsche Dialekte (Auslandsdeutsche Dialekte = Deutsch / Dialekt)
aus aw+ Australian languages (Australian languages)
aus aw+ *Australische Sprachen (Australian languages)
Austrische Sprachen --> Austro-Asiatic (other)
aust Austro-Asiatic (other) (Austro-Asiatic (other))
aust *Austroasiatische Sprachen (Austro-Asiatic (other))
map mp+ Austronesian (Other) (Austronesian (Other))
map mp+ *Austronesische Sprachen (Andere) (Austronesian (Other))
Avadhi --> Awadhi
Avañe'e --> Guarani
avar --> Avaric
ava Avaric (Avaric = Daghestan; Caucasian) [Caucasus]
Avarisch --> Avaric
ave av+ Avestan (Avestan) [Iranian]
avestique --> Avestan
ave av+ *Avestisch (Avestan) [Iranian]
awa 20 *Awadhi (Awadhi = Indo-Aryan) [India]
ava *Awarisch (Avaric = Daghestan; Caucasian) [Caucasus]
Awesta --> Avestan
aym ay 2 Aymara (Aymara = Quechumaran; Andean) [*Bolivia, Peru]
aym ay 2 *Aymará-Sprache (Aymara = Quechumaran; Andean) [*Bolivia, Peru]
Azande --> Zande languages
aze az 14 Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani = Altaic; Turkik) [*Azerbaijan, Iran]
Azeri --> Azerbaijani
azéri --> Azerbaijani
Aztec --> Nahuatl
Aztekisch --> Nahuatl
Badjande --> Zande languages
Baganda --> Ganda
bagr 1 *Bagdi (Bagri = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan) [India, West Bengal]
bagr 1 Bagri (Bagri = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan) [India, West Bengal]
ind in 17 *Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) [*Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand]
qda Bairisch (Bairisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Baiswadi --> Awadhi
Baja-Sprache --> Gbaya
Bajpuri --> Bhojpuri
ban 3 Balinese (Balinese = Austronesian (West-Malayo-Polynesian)) [Indonesia]
ban 3 Balinesisch (Balinese = Austronesian (West-Malayo-Polynesian)) [Indonesia]
Balkar --> Karachay-Balkar
Balkarisch --> Karachay-Balkar
balouchi --> Baluchi
bat Baltic (Other) (Baltic (Other))
bat *Baltische Sprachen (Andere) (Baltic (Other))
bal 4 Baluchi (Baluchi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Pakistan, Iran]
Balunda --> *Lunda
Balutschi --> Baluchi
bam bm 9 Bambara (Bambara = Niger-Congo; Mande; Manding) [West Africa]
bam bm 9 *Bambara-Sprache (Bambara = Niger-Congo; Mande; Manding) [West Africa]
bai Bamileke languages (Bamileke languages) [Cameroon]
bai Bamileke-Sprache (Bamileke languages) [Cameroon]
Bamongo --> *Mongo
bad 0 Banda languages (Banda languages = Ubangi-Sprachen) [Central African Republic]
bad 0 Banda-Sprache (Banda languages = Ubangi-Sprachen) [Central African Republic]
lam *Banjari (Lamba (Zambia and Congo)) [Zambia and Congo]
bnt Bantu (Other) (Bantu (Other))
Bantu-Kavirondo --> Luhya
bnt Bantusprachen (Andere) (Bantu (Other))
Banyankole --> Nyankole
Banyoro --> *Nyoro
Barotse --> Lozi
bas Basa (Basa) [Cameroon? (Basaa 0.23m), Benin? (Basa : .001m)]
basa Mangkasara --> Makasar
Basa Wugi --> Buginese
bas *Basaa-Sprache (Basa) [Cameroon? (Basaa 0.23m), Benin? (Basa : .001m)]
bak ba Baschkirisch (Bashkir = Turkik)
bak ba Bashkir (Bashkir = Turkik)
baq/eus eu 1 *Baskisch (Basque = Isolate) [Spain, France]
Basotho-Sprache --> Sotho, Southern
Basotho-Sprache --> Tswana
baq/eus eu 1 Basque (Basque = Isolate) [Spain, France]
Basuto-Sprache --> Sotho, Southern
btk 4 Batak (Indonesia) (Batak (Indonesia) = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
Baya --> Gbaya
Bayrisch --> Bairisch
Bazenda --> Zande languages
Beach-la-Mar --> Bislama
bis bi 0 *Beach-la-Mar (Bislama = Germanic) [New Caledonia]
Bêche-la-mer --> Bislama
bej *Bedauye (Beja = Cushitic)
Bedawije --> Beja
Bedja --> Beja
Bedja-Sprache --> Beja
Bedwiye --> Beja
bej Beja (Beja = Cushitic)
Belorussisch --> Byelorussian
bal 4 *Belutschisch (Baluchi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Pakistan, Iran]
bem 2 Bemba (Bemba = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zambia]
bem 2 *Bemba-Sprache (Bemba = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zambia]
Bena Lulua --> Luba-Lulua
ben bn 189 *Bengali (Bengali = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Bangladesh, India, Singapur]
ber bb+ Berber (Other) (Berber (Other) = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic)
ber bb+ *Berbersprachen (Andere) (Berber (Other) = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic)
Bete --> Beti
beti 2 *Bete-Sprache (Beti = Niger-Congo; Bantu; Kru) [Cameroon; Gabon]
beti 2 Beti (Beti = Niger-Congo; Bantu; Kru) [Cameroon; Gabon]
Bharatpuri --> Braj
bhil 3 Bhili (Bhili = Indo-European; Indo-Aryan) [India]
bho 25 *Bhodschpuri (Bhojpuri = Indo-Aryan; East Indo-Aryan; Bihari) [India, Nepal]
Bhojapuri --> Bhojpuri
bho 25 Bhojpuri (Bhojpuri = Indo-Aryan; East Indo-Aryan; Bihari) [India, Nepal]
Bhutanisch --> *Dzongkha
Bibelhebräisch --> Old Hebrew
Bichelamar --> Bislama
Bichlamar --> Bislama
bik 4 *Bicol (Bikol = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
biélorusse --> Byelorussian
Bietschlamar --> Bislama
bih bh Bihari (Bihari = Bihari) [India (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh)]
bik 4 Bikol (Bikol = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
byn Bilin (Bilin = Afro-Asiatic)
bin 1 Bini (Bini = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Nigeria]
bur/mya my 22 *Birmanisch (Burmese = Sino-Tibetan; Tibeto-Burman) [*Myanmar]
bis bi 0 Bislama (Bislama = Germanic) [New Caledonia]
Bislamar --> Bislama
bla 0 *Blackfoot-Sprache (Siksika = Algonquian) [Canada]
zbl Blissymbolics (Blissymbolics = Kunstsprache)
Bo --> Igbo
qna Böhmisch (Böhmisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Bokmål --> Norwegian Bokmål
nob no Bokmål (Bokmål = Indo-European; Germanic) [Norway]
bos Bosnian (Bosnian) [*Bosnia]
bos Bosnisch (Bosnian) [*Bosnia]
bouriate --> Buriat
Bouyei --> *Zhuang
bra 11 Braj (Braj = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan; West Hindi) [India]
Braj Bhasha --> Braj
bra 11 *Braj-Bhakha (Braj = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan; West Hindi) [India]
Braj-Bhasa --> Braj
Brajbhasa --> Braj
bre br Breton (Breton = Celtic)
bre br *Bretonisch (Breton = Celtic)
bug 4 *Bugi-Sprache (Buginese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia, Sulawesi]
bug 4 Buginese (Buginese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia, Sulawesi]
Buginesisch --> Buginese
Bugis --> Buginese
bul bg 9 Bulgarian (Bulgarian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Bulgaria]
Bulgarisch / Mittelbulgarisch --> Middle Bulgarian?
bul bg 9 *Bulgarisch (Bulgarian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Bulgaria]
bund 8 *Bundeli (Bundeli = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan) [India]
Bundelkhand / Mundart --> *Bundeli
Bundelkhandi --> *Bundeli
bua bu+ 0 Buriat (Buriat = Mongolian) [Mongolia]
Burjat-Mongolisch --> Buriat
bua bu+ 0 *Burjatisch (Buriat = Mongolian) [Mongolia]
bur/mya my 22 Burmese (Burmese = Sino-Tibetan; Tibeto-Burman) [*Myanmar]
Burmesisch --> Burmese
Burutisch --> Kirghiz
bel be 10 Byelorussian (Byelorussian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Belarus]
cad Caddo (Caddo = Sioux; Macro-Sioux) [North America]
cad *Caddo-Sprachen (Caddo = Sioux; Macro-Sioux) [North America]
Cam <Sprache> --> Chamic languages
came 2 Cameroon Pidgin (Cameroon Pidgin = English-based creole) [Cameroon]
Cangin-Sprache --> Serer
Cantonese --> Chinese
car Carib (Carib) [South America]
Castellano --> Spanish
cat ca 9 Catalán (Catalán = Indo-European; Romance) [Spain, France, Andorra]
cau cb+ Caucasian (Other) (Caucasian (Other))
ceb 15 *Cebuano (Cebuano = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
cel ct+ Celtic (Other) (Celtic (Other))
celtiques --> Celtic (Other)
cai ci+ Central American Indian (Other) (Central American Indian (Other))
Ceremissisch --> Mari
Cerkessisch --> Cherkessian
chg cg+ Chagatai (Chagatai = Turkik)
khal 5 *Chalcha (Khalkha = Altaic; Mongolian) [Mongolia, China]
Chaldäisch --> Suryoyo
Chalymg --> Oirat
cmc *Cham-Sprachen (Chamic languages = Austronesian) [Vietnam S.E., Cambodia]
cmc Chamic languages (Chamic languages = Austronesian) [Vietnam S.E., Cambodia]
cha Chamorro (Chamorro)
cha *Chamorro-Sprache (Chamorro)
chan --> Shan
Chantisch --> Khanti
che 1 Chechen (Chechen = Caucasian) [Checheniya]
Cheremis --> Mari
cerk ce+ 0 Cherkessian (Cherkessian = West Caucasian) [Caucasus]
chr *Cherokee (Cherokee = Iroquoian) [North America]
nya 4 *Chewa-Sprache (Chichewa = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [*Malawi, Zambia, Mozambiqu; Zimbabwe]
chy *Cheyenne (Cheyenne = Algonquian)
chb Chibcha (Chibcha) [Central and South America, *Ecuador]
chb *Chibcha-Sprachen (Chibcha) [Central and South America, *Ecuador]
nya 4 Chichewa (Chichewa = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [*Malawi, Zambia, Mozambiqu; Zimbabwe]
chi/zho zh 885 Chinese (Chinese = Sino-Tibetan) [China, Hong Kong]
chi/zho zh 885 *Chinesisch (Chinese = Sino-Tibetan) [China, Hong Kong]
Chingpo --> Kachin
chn Chinook (Chinook jargon = Penutian) [North America]
chn Chinook jargon (Chinook jargon = Penutian) [North America]
chp Chipewyan (Chipewyan = Athapascan)
chp Chipewyan (Chipewyan = Athapascan)
cho *Choctaw (Choctaw = Muskogee) [South-East USA]
Choktaw --> *Choctaw
Chotanesisch --> Khotanese
chuk tc+ 0 Chukchee (Chukchee = Palaeo-Asian) [Kamchatka]
Chung-chia --> *Zhuang
chu ch+ Church Slavic (Church Slavic)
chuuk --> Chuukese
chk(tru) 0 Chuukese (Chuukese = Trukik) [Micronesia]
Chuvaschisch --> Chuvash
chv cv+ 2 Chuvash (Chuvash = Altaic; Turkik) [Russia]
ci-Yao --> Yao
Cicewa --> Chichewa
cop kp+ Coptic (Coptic)
coréen --> Korean
cornique --> Cornish
cor cn+ Cornish (Cornish = Celtic) [Cornwall]
corse --> Corsican
cos co Corsican (Corsican = Italo-Romance) [Corsica]
cre *Cree (Cree = Algonquian)
mus Creek (Creek)
cpe cp+ Creoles and Pidgins, English-based (Other) (Creoles and Pidgins, English-based (Other))
cpf cf+ Creoles and Pidgins, French-based (Other) (Creoles and Pidgins, French-based (Other))
cpp ck+ Creoles and Pidgins, Portuguese-based (Other) (Creoles and Pidgins, Portuguese-based (Other))
crp Creoles and Pidgins (Other) (Creoles and Pidgins (Other))
crh kt+ Crimean Tatar (Crimean Tatar = Altaic) [Usbekistan]
hrv/scr sh Croatian (Croatian) [*Croatia]
cus Cushitic (Other) (Cushitic (Other) = Afro-Asiatic)
Cuvasisch --> Chuvash
cze cs 12 Czech (Czech = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Czech Republic]
dan da 5 *Dänisch (Danish = Indo-European; Germanic) [Denmark]
dagh dg+ 0 Daghur (Daghur = Mongolian) [China]
Daghurisch --> Daghur
dagh dg+ 0 *Dagurisch (Daghur = Mongolian) [China]
Dahoman --> Fon
Dahurisch --> Daghur
day 1 *Dajak (Dayak = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Borneo, Indonesia]
Dakorumänisch --> Romanian
dak dk+ Dakota (Dakota = Sioux)
dak dk+ *Dakota-Sprache (Dakota = Sioux)
Damul --> *Tamil
aar aa 1 Danakil-Sprache (Afar = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
Dangme --> *Adangme
dan da 5 Danish (Danish = Indo-European; Germanic) [Denmark]
dar 0 *Darginisch (Dargwa = Caucasian) [Russia (Europe)]
Dargwa --> Dargwa
dar 0 Dargwa (Dargwa = Caucasian) [Russia (Europe)]
dari dr Dari (Dari = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Afghanistan]
dari dr *Dari <Persisch> (Dari = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Afghanistan]
Daurisch --> Daghur
Dawo'er-Sprache --> Daghur
day 1 Dayak (Dayak = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Borneo, Indonesia]
Dayakisch --> Dayak
del Delaware (Delaware = Algonquian)
del *Delaware-Sprache (Delaware = Algonquian)
dend dn Dendi (Dendi = Nilo-Saharan; Songhai)
dend dn *Dendi-Sprache (Dendi = Nilo-Saharan; Songhai)
ger/deu de 98 *Deutsch (German = Indo-European; Germanic) [Germany, Austria, Switzerland]
Deutsch / Mittelhochdeutsch --> German, Middle High (ca. 1050-1500)
Dhogaryali --> *Dogri
Dholuo --> Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
Diné --> Navajo
din 2 Dinka (Dinka = Nilotic) [South Sudan]
din 2 *Dinka-Sprache (Dinka = Nilotic) [South Sudan]
dioula --> Dyula
div di+ Divehi (Divehi = Indo-Aryan) [*Maldivia]
diverses langues --> Miscellaneous languages
djaghatai --> Chagatai
Djavanisch --> Javanese
Djerma --> *Dyerma
Djula-Sprache --> Dyula
Dogari --> *Dogri
doi *Dogri (Dogri = Indo-Aryan) [Jammu, *Kashmir]
Dogri-Kangri --> *Dogri
dgr Dogrib (Dogrib)
dgr Dogrib (Dogrib)
dolg do+ 0 Dolgan (Dolgan = Turkik) [Siberia]
dolg do+ 0 *Dolganisch (Dolgan = Turkik) [Siberia]
Dolomitenladinisch --> Ladino dolomitico
Donaupfälzisch --> Auslandsdeutsche Dialekte
Dong --> Chinese
Dongari --> *Dogri
douala --> Duala
dra Dravidian (Other) (Dravidian (Other))
Dravidisch --> Dravidian (Other)
dra *Drawidische Sprachen (Andere) (Dravidian (Other))
Dscherma --> *Dyerma
dua Duala (Duala)
dua *Duala-Sprachen (Duala)
dut nl 20 Dutch (Dutch) [Netherlands, Belgium]
dum Dutch, Middle (ca. 1050-1350) (Dutch, Middle (ca. 1050-1350))
dyer 2 *Dyerma (Dyerma = Nilo-Saharan; Songhai) [Niger]
Dykanke --> Soninke
Dyolof --> Wolof
dyu Dyula (Dyula = Niger-Congo; Mande) [*Côte d'Ivoire]
dyu *Dyula-Sprache (Dyula = Niger-Congo; Mande) [*Côte d'Ivoire]
dzo dz *Dzongkha (Dzongkha = Sino-Tibetan) [*Bhutan]
frs East Frisian (East Frisian)
Eastern Panjabi --> Panjabi
écossais --> Scots
Edu --> Bini
efi 4 *Efik (Efik = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Nigeria]
egy 43 Egyptian (Ancient) (Egyptian (Ancient)) [Egypt]
égyptien --> Egyptian (Ancient)
eka Ekajuk (Ekajuk)
eka Ekajuk (Ekajuk)
elx em+ Elamisch (Elamite)
elx em+ Elamite (Elamite)
Elamitisch --> Elamite
Ellice <Sprache> --> Tuvalu
tvl *Elliceanisch (Tuvalu) [Polynesia]
Elsässisch --> Niederalemannisch
eng en 322 Englisch (English = Indo-European; Germanic) [USA, UK, Canada, Australia]
Englisch / Altenglisch --> English, Old (ca. 450-1100)
Englisch / Mittelenglisch --> English, Middle (1100-1500)
eng en 322 English (English = Indo-European; Germanic) [USA, UK, Canada, Australia]
enm eg+ English, Middle (1100-1500) (English, Middle (1100-1500))
ang an+ English, Old (ca. 450-1100) (English, Old (ca. 450-1100))
myv Eryza (Eryza = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian)
myv Eryza (Eryza = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian)
Erzgebirgisch --> Obersächsisch
esclave (athapascan) --> Slave
eski kl Eskimo (Eskimo) [*Greenland]
eski kl *Eskimoisch (Eskimo) [*Greenland]
espagnol --> Spanish
epo(esp) ep+ Esperanto (Esperanto)
epo(esp) ep+ Esperanto (Esperanto)
est et 1 *Estnisch (Estonian = Finno-Ugrian) [*Estonia]
est et 1 Estonian (Estonian = Finno-Ugrian) [*Estonia]
eth at+ Ethiopic (Ethiopic = Semitic)
Even --> Lamut
Evenisch --> Lamut
even ev+ 0 Evenki (Evenki = Tungus) [Mongolia]
Evenkisch --> Evenki
ewe ew 3 Ewe (Ewe = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana, *Togo]
ewe ew 3 *Ewe-Sprache (Ewe = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana, *Togo]
lamu lm+ 0 *Ewenisch (Lamut = Tungusian) [Ochotski-Sea]
even ev+ 0 *Ewenkisch (Evenki = Tungus) [Mongolia]
ewo *Ewondo (Ewondo = Bantu) [Cameroon]
fao(far) fo *Färöisch (Faroese)
fan 2 Fang (Fang = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [West Africa]
Fang-Bulu --> Fang
fat Fanti (Fanti)
fat *Fanti-Sprache (Fanti)
fao(far) fo Faroese (Faroese)
Farsi-Kabuli / Literatursprache --> Dari
féroïen --> Faroese
fidjian --> Fijian
fij fj *Fidschi-Sprache (Fijian = Austronesian) [West Central Pacific; *Fiji]
fij fj Fijian (Fijian = Austronesian) [West Central Pacific; *Fiji]
fil Filipino (Filipino)
fin fi 6 *Finnisch (Finnish = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian) [Finland]
Finnisch-ugrische Sprachen --> Finno-Ugrian (Other)
fin fi 6 Finnish (Finnish = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian) [Finland]
fiu Finno-Ugrian (Other) (Finno-Ugrian (Other) = Uralic)
finnois --> Finnish
fiu *Finnougrische Sprachen (Andere) (Finno-Ugrian (Other) = Uralic)
Flemish --> Dutch
F~ogbe --> Fon
fon fn 1 Fon (Fon = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Benin, Togo]
fon fn 1 *Fon-Sprache (Fon = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Benin, Togo]
Fongbe --> Fon
Fonnu --> Fon
francais --> French, Old (842-ca.1400)
français moyen --> French, middle (ca. 1300-1600)
Frankokreolisch --> Creoles and Pidgins, French-based (Other)
Französisch-Kreolisch --> Creoles and Pidgins, French-based (Other)
fre fr 72 *Französisch (French = Indo-European; Romance) [France, Canada, Africa, Switzerland]
fre fr 72 French (French = Indo-European; Romance) [France, Canada, Africa, Switzerland]
frm ft+ French, middle (ca. 1300-1600) (French, middle (ca. 1300-1600))
fro fs+ French, Old (842-ca.1400) (French, Old (842-ca.1400))
Friaulian --> Friulian
fry fy *Friesisch (Frisian) [*Netherlands, Germany]
frioulan --> Friulian
fry fy Frisian (Frisian) [*Netherlands, Germany]
frison --> Frisian
Friulian --> Friulian
fur 0 Friulian (Friulian = Romance) [*Italy, Slovenia]
fur 0 *Friulisch (Friulian = Romance) [*Italy, Slovenia]
ful fu+ 13 *Ful (Fulah = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [*Cameroon, Nigeria]
Fula --> Fulah
ful fu+ 13 Fulah (Fulah = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [*Cameroon, Nigeria]
fula 2 Fulakunda (Fulakunda = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Guinea]
Fulani --> Fulah
Fulbe-Sprache --> Fulah
Fulfulde --> Fulah
Funafuti --> Tuvalu
Furlan --> Friulian
Futa --> Fulah
uuu 3 Futa Jalon (Futa Jalon = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Guinea]
uuu 3 Futa Jalon (Futa Jalon = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Guinea]
gaa 1 Ga (Ga = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana]
gaa 1 G~a (Ga = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana]
Ga-Adangme --> Ga
Gad'aga --> Soninke
Gadyaga --> Soninke
Gaelic Manx --> *Manx Gaelic
gla(gae) gs+ 0 Gaelic (Scots) (Gaelic (Scots) = Celtic-Goidelic) [Scotland]
gaélique d'Ecosse --> Gaelic (Scots)
gla(gae) gs+ 0 *Gälisch-Schottisch (Gaelic (Scots) = Celtic-Goidelic) [Scotland]
gaga gg+ 0 *Gagausisch (Gagauz = Turkik) [Moldova, Bulgaria]
gaga gg+ 0 Gagauz (Gagauz = Turkik) [Moldova, Bulgaria]
Galegisch --> Gallegan
Galician --> Gallegan
galicien --> Gallegan
Galicisch --> Gallegan
glg(gag) gl 3 *Galizisch (Gallegan = Indo-European; Romance) [*Spain]
Galla --> Oromo
orm(gal) om 8 *Galla-Sprache (Oromo = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
glg(gag) gl 3 Gallegan (Gallegan = Indo-European; Romance) [*Spain]
Gallinas --> Vai
gallois --> Welsh
Gan --> Ga
lug 3 Ganda (Ganda = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Uganda]
lug 3 *Ganda-Sprache (Ganda = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Uganda]
gay *Gayo (Gayo) [East India]
gba Gbaya (Gbaya) [Cameroon]
gba *Gbaya-Sprache (Gbaya) [Cameroon]
Gbe --> Ewe
Gberesi --> Kpelle
sgn *Gebärdensprache (Sign languages)
Gees --> Geez (Ethiopic)
Ge'ez --> Geez (Ethiopic)
eth(gez) ge+ Geez (Ethiopic) (Geez (Ethiopic)) [Ethiopia]
Gegisch --> Albanian
Gekoya --> Kikuyu
geo/kat ka 3 Georgian (Georgian = Caucasian) [*Georgia]
geo/kat ka 3 *Georgisch (Georgian = Caucasian) [*Georgia]
ger/deu de 98 German (German = Indo-European; Germanic) [Germany, Austria, Switzerland]
gmh gm+ German, Middle High (ca. 1050-1500) (German, Middle High (ca. 1050-1500))
goh go+ German, Old High (ca. 750-1050) (German, Old High (ca. 750-1050))
gem Germanic (Other) (Germanic (Other))
gem Germanische Sprachen (Andere) (Germanic (Other))
Gerze --> Kpelle
Gikuyu --> Kikuyu
gila 2 *Gilaki (Gilaki = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Iran]
Gilani --> *Gilaki
gil Gilbertese (Gilbertese = Micronesian)
gil *Gilbertesisch (Gilbertese = Micronesian)
Giljakisch --> Gilyak
gily nv+ 0 Gilyak (Gilyak = Isolate) [Sachalin]
Gipsy --> Romani
Gluliak --> Gilyak
Göttingen-Grubenhagisch --> Ostfälisch
Golden --> Nanai
gond --> Gondi
gon 2 Gondi (Gondi = Dravidian; South-Central Dravidian) [India]
gon 2 *Gondi-Sprache (Gondi = Dravidian; South-Central Dravidian) [India]
Gorontalesisch --> Gorontalo
gor Gorontalo (Gorontalo) [Sulawezi]
got gt+ Gothic (Gothic)
got gt+ *Gotisch (Gothic)
goudjrati --> Gujarati
Graecae --> Greek, Modern (1453- )
grb Grebo (Grebo)
grb Grebo (Grebo)
grec moderne --> Greek, Modern (1453- )
grc gr+ Greek, Ancient (to 1453) (Greek, Ancient (to 1453))
gre/ell el 12 Greek, Modern (1453- ) (Greek, Modern (1453- ) = Indo-European; Greek) [*Greece, Albania, Cyprus]
Greenlandic --> Eskimo
grc gr+ *Griechisch (Greek, Ancient (to 1453))
kal *Grönländisch (Kalaallisut = Eskimosprachen)
groenlandais --> Kalaallisut
Großrussisch --> Russian
Grusinisch --> Georgian
Gruzinisch --> Georgian
grn(gua) gn 4 Guarani (Guarani = South American; Tupian) [*Paraguay]
grn(gua) gn 4 *Guaraní-Sprache (Guarani = South American; Tupian) [*Paraguay]
Gudscharati --> Gujarati
guèze --> Geez (Ethiopic)
gui/guj gu 44 Gujarati (Gujarati = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Pakistan]
gui/guj gu 44 *Gujarati-Sprache (Gujarati = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Pakistan]
Gurkhali --> *Nepali
gusi 2 *Gusii (Gusii = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Kenya]
gwi Gwich'in (Gwich'in = Athapascan)
Gypsy --> Romani
hadi 2 *Hadiya (Hadiyya = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
hadi 2 Hadiyya (Hadiyya = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
hai Haida (Haida) [USA, North-West Coast Indians]
hai *Haida-Sprache (Haida) [USA, North-West Coast Indians]
hat 3 Haitian Creole (Haitian Creole = French-based creole) [Haiti]
Hak-fa --> Chinese
Hakka --> Chinese
afa ab+ *Hamitosemititsche Sprachen (Afro-Asiatic (Other))
haoussa --> Hausa
Har --> *Santali
hau ha 22 Hausa (Hausa = Afro-Asiatic; Chadic) [Nigeria, *Niger, Cameroon]
Hausa-Sprache --> Hausa
Haussa --> Hausa
hau ha 22 *Haussa-Sprache (Hausa = Afro-Asiatic; Chadic) [Nigeria, *Niger, Cameroon]
hawaïen --> Hawaiian
haw Hawaiian (Hawaiian = Polynesian)
haw *Hawaiisch (Hawaiian = Polynesian)
Hebräisch --> Hebrew
oldh he+ *Hebräisch (Old Hebrew = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic)
Hebräisch-Deutsch --> Yiddish
hébreu --> Hebrew
heb iw 4 Hebrew (Hebrew = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Israel]
her Herero (Herero)
her *Herero-Sprache (Herero)
qia Hessisch (Hessisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
hit ht+ *Hethitisch (Hittite = Indo-European) [Old Anatolia, Iraq]
hil 7 Hiligaynon (Hiligaynon = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
hil 7 *Hiligaynon-Sprache (Hiligaynon = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
Himacali --> Himachali
him *Himachali (Himachali = Indo-Aryan)
hin hi 182 *Hindi (Hindi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India]
Hindi Dogri --> *Dogri
hmo Hiri-Motu (Hiri Motu = Pidgin) [Papua-New Guinea]
hit ht+ Hittite (Hittite = Indo-European) [Old Anatolia, Iraq]
hmn Hmong (Hmong = Miao-Yao) [Asia]
Hmong-Sprachen, Hmung --> Hmong
holo Ho-lo-oe (Ho-lo-oe = Sino-Tibetan) [Taiwan]
Hochalemannisch --> Swiss German
qpa Hochpreußisch (Hochpreußisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Höchstalemannisch --> Swiss German
Hokkien --> Ho-lo-oe
Holländisch <Standardsprache> --> Dutch
hongrois --> Hungarian
Hor --> *Santali
hun hu 15 Hungarian (Hungarian = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian) [Hungary]
hup Hupa (Hupa = Athapascan)
hup Hupa (Hupa = Athapascan)
I-Teso --> *Teso
iakoute --> Yakut
iba 0 *Iban (Iban = Western Malayo-Polynesian; Philippine) [Malaysia, Indonesia]
Ibgo --> Igbo
Ibibio --> *Efik
ibo ib 17 *Ibo-Sprache (Igbo = Niger-Congo; Kwa; Benue-Congo) [Niger, Nigeria; Equatorial Guinea]
ice/isi is 0 Icelandic (Icelandic = North Germanic) [*Iceland]
Idjo --> Ijo
Igbo --> Igbo
ibo ib 17 Igbo (Igbo = Niger-Congo; Kwa; Benue-Congo) [Niger, Nigeria; Equatorial Guinea]
Ijaw --> Ijo
ijo 2 Ijo (Ijo = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Nigeria]
ijo 2 *Ijo-Sprache (Ijo = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Nigeria]
Ikiribati --> Gilbertese
IkiRundi --> Rundi
ilocano --> Iloko
Iloka --> Iloko
ilo 8 *Ilokano-Sprache (Iloko = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
ilo 8 Iloko (Iloko = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
Ilongo --> Hiligaynon
indéterminée --> Undetermined language
cai ci+ Indianersprachen / Zentralamerika (Andere) (Central American Indian (Other))
nai *Indianersprachen / Nordamerika (Andere) (North American Indian (Other))
sai sp+ *Indianersprachen / Südamerika (Andere) (South American Indian (Other))
Indianisch --> North American Indian (Other)
inc Indic (Other) (Indic (Other))
indo-aryennes --> Indic (Other)
ine Indo-European (Other) (Indo-European (Other))
inc *Indoarische Sprachen (Indic (Other))
Indochinesisch --> Sino-Tibetan (Other)
Indoeuropäische Sprachen --> Indo-European (Other)
ine *Indogermanische Sprachen (Andere) (Indo-European (Other))
ind in 17 Indonesian (Indonesian) [*Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand]
Indonesische Sprachen --> Indonesian
inh Ingush (Ingush = Caucasian)
inh Ingush (Ingush = Caucasian)
Inkasprache --> Quechua
Innuit --> Inuktitut
ina(int) *Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association) (Interlingua, Int. Auxil. Lang. Assoc.)
ile *Interlingue (Interlingue)
Inuit <Sprache> --> Inuktitut
Inuk --> Inuktitut
iku ik *Inuktitut (Inuktitut)
Inupiak --> Inuktitut
ipk ik Inupiaq (Inupiaq)
ira Iranian (Other) (Iranian (Other))
Iranisch --> Dari
Iranisch <im engeren Sinn> --> Persian
ira Iranische Sprachen (Andere) (Iranian (Other))
gle(iri) ga *Irisch (Irish = Celtic) [Ireland]
gle(iri) ga Irish (Irish = Celtic) [Ireland]
mga Irish, Middle (900-1200) (Irish, Middle (900-1200) = Celtic)
sga Irish, Old (to 900) (Irish, Old (to 900))
irlandais --> Irish
irlandais ancien (jusqu'a 900) --> Irish, Old (to 900)
irlandais moyen --> Irish, Middle (900-1200)
iro *Irokesische Sprachen (Iroquoian languages) [North America]
iro Iroquoian languages (Iroquoian languages) [North America]
isi-Xhosa --> Xhosa
ice/isi is 0 *Isländisch (Icelandic = North Germanic) [*Iceland]
islandais --> Icelandic
ita it 40 Italian (Italian = Indo-European; Romance) [*Italia, Switzerland]
ita it 40 *Italienisch (Italian = Indo-European; Romance) [*Italia, Switzerland]
itel kc+ Itelmenic (Itelmenic = Palaeo-Asian) [East Siberia]
itel kc+ *Itelmenisch (Itelmenic = Palaeo-Asian) [East Siberia]
sah jk+ 0 *Jakutisch (Yakut = Turkik) [Siberia]
jpn ja 125 Japanese (Japanese = Isolate) [Japan]
jpn ja 125 *Japanisch (Japanese = Isolate) [Japan]
Jatki --> Lahnda
Jaunde --> *Ewondo
jav/jaw jw 75 Javanese (Javanese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
jav/jaw jw 75 *Javanisch (Javanese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
Jeji --> Fon
yid ji 3 *Jiddisch (Yiddish = Indo-European; Germanic) [Israel, Central Europe, USA]
Jingpo --> Kachin
Jolof --> Wolof
Judenarabisch --> Judeo-Arabic
lad ld+ *Judenspanisch (Ladino)
jrb Judeo-Arabic (Judeo-Arabic)
judéo-espagnol --> Ladino
jpr Judeo-Persian (Judeo-Persian)
jrb *Jüdisch-Arabisch (Judeo-Arabic)
Jüdisch-Deutsch --> Yiddish
jpr Jüdisch-Persisch (Judeo-Persian)
Jui --> *Zhuang
yuka ju+ 0 *Jukagirisch (Yukaghir = Isolate) [Siberia]
kbd Kabardian (Kabardian = Caucasian)
kbd *Kabardinisch (Kabardian = Caucasian)
Kabulisch --> Dari
kab kd+ 3 Kabyle (Kabyle = Afro-Asiatic; Berber) [Algeria]
kab kd+ 3 Kabylisch (Kabyle = Afro-Asiatic; Berber) [Algeria]
kac Kachin (Kachin) [Burma]
kac *Kachin-Sprache (Kachin) [Burma]
Kaddo-Sprachen --> Caddo
Kajans --> Dayak
kal Kalaallisut (Kalaallisut = Eskimosprachen)
Kalatdlisut --> Kalaallisut
Kalebwe --> Luba-Lulua
xal qa+ 0 *Kalmückisch (Oirat = Altaic) [Mongolia; Russia]
Kalmükisch --> Oirat
Kalmykisch --> Oirat
Kalunda --> *Lunda
kam 3 *Kamba (Kamba = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Kenya]
Kamtschadalisch --> Itelmenic
Kanarese --> Kannada
Kanaresisch --> Kannada
kana 6 Kanauji (Kanauji = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan) [India]
kan kn 34 *Kannada (Kannada = Dravidian; South Dravidian) [India]
kanouri --> Kanuri
kau kb+ 4 Kanuri (Kanuri = Nilo-Saharan; Saharan) [Central & West Africa]
kau kb+ 4 *Kanuri-Sprache (Kanuri = Nilo-Saharan; Saharan) [Central & West Africa]
Kapampangan --> Pampanga
kaa kh+ Kara-Kalpak (Kara-Kalpak = Turkik)
krc bk+ 0 Karachay-Balkar (Karachay-Balkar = Turkik) [Russia (Europe)]
Karaibisch --> Carib
kaa kh+ Karakalpakisch (Kara-Kalpak = Turkik)
krc bk+ 0 *Karatschaiisch-Balkarisch (Karachay-Balkar = Turkik) [Russia (Europe)]
krl kr+ Karelian (Karelian = Finno-Ugrian) [Russia, Finland]
krl kr+ *Karelisch (Karelian = Finno-Ugrian) [Russia, Finland]
kar Karen languages (Karen languages = Sino-Tibetan) [Myanmar, Thailand]
kar *Karenisch (Karen languages = Sino-Tibetan) [Myanmar, Thailand]
Kariben-Sprachen --> Carib
car *Karibische Sprachen (Carib) [South America]
kaz kk 8 *Kasachisch (Kazakh = Altaic; Turkik) [*Kazakhstan]
Kasakkirgisisch --> Kazakh
Kasantatarisch --> Tatar
kas ks 4 *Kaschmiri (Kashmiri = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Pakistan, *Kaschmir]
csb *Kaschubisch (Kashubian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Baltikum]
kas ks 4 Kashmiri (Kashmiri = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Pakistan, *Kaschmir]
csb Kashubian (Kashubian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Baltikum]
Kastilisch --> Spanish
cat ca 9 *Katalanisch (Catalán = Indo-European; Romance) [Spain, France, Andorra]
Katschin --> Kachin
cau cb+ *Kaukasische Sprachen (Andere) (Caucasian (Other))
kaw Kawi (Kawi) [East India]
Kazachisch --> Kazakh
kaz kk 8 Kazakh (Kazakh = Altaic; Turkik) [*Kazakhstan]
Kazan Turkik --> Tatar
cel ct+ *Keltische Sprachen (Andere) (Celtic (Other))
keti ke+ 0 Ket (Ket = Jenissej-Ostyak) [Russia]
keti ke+ 0 *Ket <Volk> (Ket = Jenissej-Ostyak) [Russia]
Ketchua --> Quechua
Ketisch --> Ket
khal 5 Khalkha (Khalkha = Altaic; Mongolian) [Mongolia, China]
chan oj+ 0 Khanti (Khanti = Finno-Ugrian) [Siberia]
Khas-kura --> *Nepali
kha Khasi (Khasi) [India]
kha *Khasi-Sprache (Khasi) [India]
Khin --> Vietnamese
Khjurkili --> Dargwa
khm(cam) km 7 Khmer (Khmer = Austro-Asiatic; Mon Khmer) [*Cambodia; Vietnam]
khm(cam) km 7 *Khmer-Sprache (Khmer = Austro-Asiatic; Mon Khmer) [*Cambodia; Vietnam]
khi Khoisan (Other) (Khoisan (Other))
khi *Khoisan-Sprachen (Andere) (Khoisan (Other))
kho Khotanese (Khotanese = Iranian)
Khotanisch --> Khotanese
mag 11 Khotta (Magahi = Indo-Aryan; East Indo-Aryan; Bihari) [India, Nepal]
Kikongo --> Kongo
kik 5 Kikuyu (Kikuyu = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Kenya]
kik 5 *Kikuyu-Sprache (Kikuyu = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Kenya]
kmb(kim) 3 Kimbundu (Kimbundu = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Angola]
Kin'amwezi-Sprache --> Nyamwezi
KinNyamwezi --> Nyamwezi
Kinyamwezi-Sprache --> Nyamwezi
kin rw 9 Kinyarwanda (Kinyarwanda = Bantu) [Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire]
chu ch+ *Kirchenslawisch (Church Slavic)
kir ky 2 Kirghiz (Kirghiz = Altaic; Turkik) [*Kirghiztan]
kir ky 2 *Kirgisisch (Kirghiz = Altaic; Turkik) [*Kirghiztan]
kiribati --> Gilbertese
Kiribati <Sprache> --> Gilbertese
KiRoundi --> Rundi
Kisii <Kenia> --> Gusii
Kissandavi-Sprache --> Sandawe
Kissour-Sprache --> Songhai
Kisuaheli --> *Swahili
Kisuahili --> *Swahili
kitu 4 Kituba (Kituba = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zaire]
kitu 4 Kituba (Kituba = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zaire]
Klassisches Hebräisch --> Old Hebrew
Kleinrussisch --> Ukrainian
tlh Klingon (Artificial language) (Klingon (Artificial language) = Kunstsprache)
tlh *Klingonisch (Klingon (Artificial language) = Kunstsprache)
kom ki+ Komi (Komi = Finno-Ugrian) [West Siberia]
kom ki+ *Komi-Sprachen (Komi = Finno-Ugrian) [West Siberia]
kon 3 Kongo (Kongo = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Zaire, Congo]
kok 4 *Konkani (Konkani = Indo-European; Indo-Aryan) [India]
Konkanni --> *Konkani
Konkni --> *Konkani
kut 0 Kootenai (Kootenai = Isolate) [Canada]
Kootenay --> Kootenai
cop kp+ *Koptisch (Coptic)
Kordofan-Sprachen --> Niger-Kordofanian (Other)
kor ko 75 Korean (Korean = Isolate) [*Korea, China]
kor ko 75 *Koreanisch (Korean = Isolate) [*Korea, China]
kory kj+ 0 *Korjakisch (Koryak = Palaeo-Asian) [Kamchatka]
cor cn+ *Kornisch (Cornish = Celtic) [Cornwall]
cos co *Korsisch (Corsican = Italo-Romance) [Corsica]
kory kj+ 0 Koryak (Koryak = Palaeo-Asian) [Kamchatka]
Kosraean --> Kusaie
kos(kus) *Kosraeanisch (Kusaie = Micronesian) [Nauru]
koumyk --> Kumyk
Koyracini-Sprache --> Songhai
Kpelle --> Kpelle
kpe 0 Kpelle (Kpelle = Mande) [*Liberia]
kpe 0 *Kpelle-Sprache (Kpelle = Mande) [*Liberia]
hat 3 Kreolisch <Haiti> (Haitian Creole = French-based creole) [Haiti]
Kreolisch-Englisch --> Creoles and Pidgins, English-based (Other)
cpf cf+ *Kreolisch-Französisch (Andere) (Creoles and Pidgins, French-based (Other))
cpp ck+ *Kreolisch-Portugiesisch (Andere) (Creoles and Pidgins, Portuguese-based (Other))
Kreolisch-Spanisch --> Papiamento
crp *Kreolische Sprachen (Creoles and Pidgins (Other))
Kri --> *Cree
crh kt+ *Krimtatarisch (Crimean Tatar = Altaic) [Usbekistan]
cpe cp+ *Krio (Creoles and Pidgins, English-based (Other))
Krio-Englisch --> Creoles and Pidgins, English-based (Other)
hrv/scr sh *Kroatisch (Croatian) [*Croatia]
Kroo-Sprachen --> Kru
krou --> Kru
kro Kru (Kru = Kwa) [Liberia]
kro *Kru-Sprachen (Kru = Kwa) [Liberia]
kua Kuanyama (Kuanyama)
kum kz+ 0 *Kumükisch (Kumyk = Turkik) [Russia, Turkey]
kum kz+ 0 Kumyk (Kumyk = Turkik) [Russia, Turkey]
Kumykisch --> Kumyk
art *Kunstsprache (Artificial (Other))
kur ku 7 *Kurdisch (Kurdish = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Iran, Iraq, Turkey]
kur ku 7 Kurdish (Kurdish = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Iran, Iraq, Turkey]
Kuria-Sprache --> Songhai
Kurmanji --> Kurdish
kru 1 Kurukh (Kurukh = Dravidian; North Dravidian) [India]
Kurux --> Kurukh
Kusaie --> Kusaie
kos(kus) Kusaie (Kusaie = Micronesian) [Nauru]
Kusaiemisch --> Kusaie
cus *Kuschitische Sprachen (Andere) (Cushitic (Other) = Afro-Asiatic)
gwi *Kutchin (Gwich'in = Athapascan)
kut 0 Kutenai-Sprache (Kootenai = Isolate) [Canada]
Kuyu --> Kikuyu
Kwangtung / Mundart --> Chinese
kua Kwanyama (Kuanyama)
wel/cym cy *Kymrisch (Welsh = Celtic) [*Wales]
Laamang-Sprache --> Lamang
ladi 0 *Ladinisch (Ladino dolomitico) [Italy]
Ladinisch <im weiteren Sinne> --> Raeto-Romance
Ladino --> Ladino
lad ld+ Ladino (Ladino)
ladi 0 Ladino dolomitico (Ladino dolomitico) [Italy]
lah 30 Lahnda (Lahnda = Indo-European; Indo-Aryan) [India]
lama lg+ 0 Lamang (Lamang = Afro-Asiatic; Chadic) [Nigeria]
lama lg+ 0 *Lamang-Sprache (Lamang = Afro-Asiatic; Chadic) [Nigeria]
Lamba --> Lamba (Zambia and Congo)
lam Lamba (Zambia and Congo) (Lamba (Zambia and Congo)) [Zambia and Congo]
lamu lm+ 0 Lamut (Lamut = Tungusian) [Ochotski-Sea]
Lamutisch --> Lamut
Lango --> Acoli
Langue d'Oil --> French
Langues algonquines --> Algonquian languages
Langues australiennes --> Australian languages
langues chames --> Chamic languages
lao lo 4 Lao (Lao = Sino-Tibetan; Tai) [*Laos]
lao lo 4 *Laotisch (Lao = Sino-Tibetan; Tai) [*Laos]
Lapp --> Sami languages
smi(lap) lp+ 0 *Lappisch (Sami languages = Finno-Ugrian) [Scandinavia]
Lappländisch --> Sami languages
lat la *Latein (Latin = Italic) [*Vatican]
lat la Latin (Latin = Italic) [*Vatican]
lav lv 2 Latvian (Latvian = Indo-European; Baltic) [*Latvia]
Lausitzisch <Slawische Sprache> s.a. --> Sorbian (Other)
qla Lausitzisch (Lausitzisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Lausitzisch-Märkisch --> Lausitzisch
Leg'orawetl'anisch --> Chukchee
lez *Lesgisch (Lezghian)
lav lv 2 *Lettisch (Latvian = Indo-European; Baltic) [*Latvia]
letton --> Latvian
Letzeburgesch --> Luxembourgish
lez Lezghian (Lezghian)
lim *Limburgisch (Limburgish = Indo-European; Germanic) [*Niederlande]
lim Limburgish (Limburgish = Indo-European; Germanic) [*Niederlande]
lin ln 6 *LiNgala (Lingala = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [*Congo, Zaire]
lit lt 3 *Litauisch (Lithuanian = Indo-European; Baltic) [*Lithuania]
lit lt 3 Lithuanian (Lithuanian = Indo-European; Baltic) [*Lithuania]
jbo Lojban (Artificial language) (Lojban (Artificial language) = Kunstsprache)
Lori --> Luri
nds dt+ Low German (Low German = Germanic) [Germany]
dsb Lower Sorbian (Lower Sorbian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Niederlausitz]
loz Lozi (Lozi) [Zambia]
lub Luba (Luba-Katanga)
lub Luba-Katanga (Luba-Katanga)
lua 6 Luba-Lulua (Luba-Lulua = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zaire]
lua 6 *Luba-Sprache (Luba-Lulua = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zaire]
Luganda --> Ganda
luhy 1 *Luhia (Luhya = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Kenya]
luhy 1 Luhya (Luhya = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Kenya]
lui Luiseno (Luiseno = Uto-Aztec)
lui *Luiseno-Sprache (Luiseno = Uto-Aztec)
Lujia --> Luhya
Lulua --> Luba-Lulua
Luluwa --> Luba-Lulua
lun *Lunda (Lunda = Bantu) [Zambia, Angola, Zaire]
luo 3 Luo (Kenya and Tanzania) (Luo (Kenya and Tanzania) = Nilo-Saharan; Nilotic) [Kenya, Tanzania]
Luo-Kavirondo --> Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
luo 3 *Luo-Sprache (Luo (Kenya and Tanzania) = Nilo-Saharan; Nilotic) [Kenya, Tanzania]
Luorawetlan --> Chukchee
Lur --> Luri
luri 2 Luri (Luri = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Iran, Iraq]
luri 2 *Lurisch (Luri = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [Iran, Iraq]
lus Lushai (Lushai = Mizo) [India]
lus *Lushai-Sprache (Lushai = Mizo) [India]
Lushéi --> Lushai
Lusokreolisch --> Creoles and Pidgins, Portuguese-based (Other)
luxembourgeois --> Luxembourgish
ltz Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish = Germanic) [*Luxembourg]
ltz *Luxemburgisch (Luxembourgish = Germanic) [*Luxembourg]
Luyia --> Luhya
Lwo --> Acoli
mas mz+ *Maasai (Masai)
Macca Oromo --> Oromo
mac/mkd mk 2 Macedonian (Macedonian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Macedonia]
Madegassisch --> Malagasy
Madjar --> Hungarian
madourais --> Madurese
Madura --> Madurese
mad 14 Madurese (Madurese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia, East Java, Madura]
mad 14 Maduresisch (Madurese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia, East Java, Madura]
Märkisch-Brandenburgisch --> Ostniederdeutsch
mag 11 Magahi (Magahi = Indo-Aryan; East Indo-Aryan; Bihari) [India, Nepal]
Maipuran --> Arawak
mai 24 Maithili (Maithili = Indo-Aryan; East Indo-Aryan; Bihari) [India, Nepal]
mai 24 *Maithili (Maithili = Indo-Aryan; East Indo-Aryan; Bihari) [India, Nepal]
mak Makasar (Makasar = Austronesian) [Sulawezi; Indonesia]
mak Makassarisch (Makasar = Austronesian) [Sulawezi; Indonesia]
mac/mkd mk 2 *Makedonisch (Macedonian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Macedonia]
Malabarisch --> Malayalam
mlg(mla) mg 12 *Malagassi-Sprache (Malagasy = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [*Madagascar, Comoros]
Malagasy --> Malagasy
mlg(mla) mg 12 Malagasy (Malagasy = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [*Madagascar, Comoros]
may/msa ms 18 *Malaiisch (Malay = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia, *Malaysia, Brunei]
malais --> Malay
Malajalam --> Malayalam
may/msa ms 18 Malay (Malay = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia, *Malaysia, Brunei]
mal ml 34 Malayalam (Malayalam = Dravidian; South Dravidian) [India]
mal ml 34 *Malayalam (Malayalam = Dravidian; South Dravidian) [India]
Malayisch --> Malay
Malayo-Polynesische Sprachen --> Austronesian (Other)
Maldivian --> Divehi
maldivien --> Divehi
div di+ Maledivisch (Divehi = Indo-Aryan) [*Maldivia]
malgache --> Malagasy
Malgasch --> Malagasy
Malinke-Bambara --> Bambara
maltais --> Maltese
mlt mt Maltese (Maltese = Semitic) [*Malta]
mlt mt *Maltesisch (Maltese = Semitic) [*Malta]
Malti --> Maltese
mnc md+ Manchu (Manchu = Tungus; Altaisch) [China]
mdr Mandar (Mandar = West Malayo-Polynesian) [East India]
mdr *Mandaresisch (Mandar = West Malayo-Polynesian) [East India]
Mandarin --> Chinese
Mandekan --> Mandingo
Manding --> Mandingo
man ma+ *Manding-Sprache (Mandingo = Niger-Congo; Mande) [*Gambia]
man ma+ Mandingo (Mandingo = Niger-Congo; Mande) [*Gambia]
mandingue --> Mandingo
mnc md+ *Mandschurisch (Manchu = Tungus; Altaisch) [China]
Mangunisch --> Olcha
Maninka --> Mandingo
mni 1 Manipuri (Manipuri = Sino-Tibetan) [Myanmar]
mno Manobo languages (Manobo languages = West Malayo-Polynesian)
mno *Manobo-Sprache (Manobo languages = West Malayo-Polynesian)
mans wg+ 0 Mansi (Mansi = Finno-Ugrian) [Siberia]
Mansisch --> Mansi
glv(max) *Manx Gaelic (Manx Gaelic = Celtic; Goidelic) [Isle of Man]
mao/mri mi Maori (Maori = Polynesian) [*New Zealand]
mao/mri mi *Maori-Sprache (Maori = Polynesian) [*New Zealand]
Mapuche --> Araucanian
Mapudungu --> Araucanian
mar mr 64 *Marathi (Marathi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India]
chm cm+ 0 Mari (Mari = Finno-Ugrian) [Wolga]
Marka --> Soninke
Markanga --> Soninke
mah 0 Marschallesisch (Marshall = Micronesian) [Marshall Islands]
mah 0 Marshall (Marshall = Micronesian) [Marshall Islands]
Marshallese --> Marshall
Marvari --> Marwari
marvari --> Marwari
mwr 12 *Marwari (Marwari = Indo-Aryan; Central Indo-Aryan; Rajasthan) [Indien]
mas mz+ Masai (Masai)
maza 2 *Masenderan (Mazandarani = Indo-Iranian) [Iran]
massai --> Masai
Massandaran --> Mazandarani
myn mc+ *Maya-Sprachen (Mayan languages)
myn mc+ Mayan languages (Mayan languages)
maza 2 Mazandarani (Mazandarani = Indo-Iranian) [Iran]
Mazedonisch --> Macedonian
Mbundu --> Kimbundu
kmb(kim) 3 *Mbundu-Sprache (Kimbundu = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Angola]
umb 4 *Mbundu-Sprache (Umbundu = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Angola]
Mecklenburgisch --> Ostniederdeutsch
Meißnisch --> Obersächsisch
mni 1 *Meithei (Manipuri = Sino-Tibetan) [Myanmar]
Melanesisches Pidgin-Englisch --> Tok Pisin
Menangkabau --> Minangkabau
men 2 Mende (Mende = Niger-Congo; Mande) [Sierra-Leone]
men 2 Mende-Sprache (Mende = Niger-Congo; Mande) [Sierra-Leone]
Mesoamerikanische Sprachen --> Central American Indian (Other)
Mexicano --> Nahuatl
hmn Miao-Sprachen (Hmong = Miao-Yao) [Asia]
mic Micmac (Micmac = Algonquian) [North America]
mic *Micmac-Sprache (Micmac = Algonquian) [North America]
midb mb+ Middle Bulgarian? (Middle Bulgarian?)
mlow dd+ Middle Low German (Middle Low German = Germanic) [Germany]
Mikmak --> Micmac
min mm+ 6 Minangkabau (Minangkabau = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
min mm+ 6 *Minangkabau-Sprache (Minangkabau = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
Minangkabauisch --> Minangkabau
mwl Mirandese (Mirandese)
mwl Mirandese (Mirandese)
mis Miscellaneous (Other) (Miscellaneous (Other))
mis Miscellaneous languages (Miscellaneous languages)
Mittelbairisch --> Bairisch
midb mb+ *Mittelbulgarisch (Middle Bulgarian?)
enm eg+ Mittelenglisch (English, Middle (1100-1500))
qha Mittelfränkisch (Mittelfränkisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
frm ft+ Mittelfranzösisch (French, middle (ca. 1300-1600))
gmh gm+ *Mittelhochdeutsch (German, Middle High (ca. 1050-1500))
Mittelindische Sprachen --> Prakrit languages
mga Mittelirisch (Irish, Middle (900-1200) = Celtic)
dum Mittelniederländisch (Dutch, Middle (ca. 1050-1350))
mlow dd+ *Mittelniederdeutsch (Middle Low German = Germanic) [Germany]
pal ph+ *Mittelpersisch (Pahlavi)
Mittelpommersch --> Ostniederdeutsch
Mizo-Sprache --> Lushai
moh mh+ Mohawk (Mohawk = Iroquoian)
moh mh+ *Mohawk-Sprache (Mohawk = Iroquoian)
mdf *Mokscha <Sprache> (Moksha = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian)
mdf Moksha (Moksha = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian)
mol mo *Moldauisch (Moldavian)
mol mo Moldavian (Moldavian)
Moldovan --> Moldavian
Moldowanisch --> Moldavian
mkh *Mon-Khmer-Sprachen (Mon-Khmer (Other) = Austro-Asiatic)
lol *Mongo (Mongo = Bantu) [Zaire]
mon mn 2 Mongolian (Mongolian = Altaic; Mongolian) [*Mongolia]
mon mn 2 *Mongolisch (Mongolian = Altaic; Mongolian) [*Mongolia]
gor *Mongondou (Gorontalo) [Sulawezi]
Moré --> Mossi
Moselfränkisch --> Mittelfränkisch
Moshi --> Mossi
mos 4 Mossi (Mossi = Niger-Congo; Voltaic) [*Burkina Faso]
mos 4 *Mossi-Sprache (Mossi = Niger-Congo; Voltaic) [*Burkina Faso]
mounda --> Munda languages
multilingue --> Multiple languages
mul mu+ Multiple languages (Multiple languages)
mun Munda languages (Munda languages = Austro-Asiatic) [India]
mun *Mundasprachen (Munda languages = Austro-Asiatic) [India]
mus Muskogee-Sprachen (Creek)
Nahua --> Nahuatl
nah nh+ 1 *Nahuatl (Nahuatl = Uto-Aztec) [Mexico]
Naipali --> *Nepali
Namwezi-Sprache --> Nyamwezi
nana nn+ 0 Nanai (Nanai = Tungus) [Siberia]
nana nn+ 0 *Nanai (Nanai = Tungus) [Siberia]
Nanay --> Nanai
nau na 0 Nauru (Nauru = Eastern Malayo-Polynesian) [*Nauru]
nau na 0 Nauruanisch (Nauru = Eastern Malayo-Polynesian) [*Nauru]
navaho --> Navajo
nav 0 Navajo (Navajo = Athapascan) [Utah, Arizona, New Mexico]
nav 0 *Navajo-Sprache (Navajo = Athapascan) [Utah, Arizona, New Mexico]
nbl nd Ndebele (Zimbabwe) (Ndebele (Zimbabwe) = Bantu)
nbl Ndebele, South (Ndebele, South = Zulu)
nbl Ndebele-Sprache (Süd) (Ndebele, South = Zulu)
nbl nd Ndebele-Sprache (Nord) (Ndebele (Zimbabwe) = Bantu)
ndo *Ndonga (Ndonga) [Namibia, Angola]
Ndongo --> Kimbundu
nap Neapolitan Italian (Neapolitan Italian = Indo-European; Romance) [*Italia]
nap *Neapolitanisch (Neapolitan Italian = Indo-European; Romance) [*Italia]
néerlandais --> Dutch
Negda-Sprache --> Negidal
negi nz+ 0 Negidal (Negidal = Tungus) [Siberia]
negi nz+ 0 *Negidalisch (Negidal = Tungus) [Siberia]
Nenzische Sprachen --> Samojedic languages
Neomelanesisch --> Tok Pisin
nep ne 16 *Nepali (Nepali = Indo-Aryan) [*Nepal]
Neu-Cam <Sprache> --> Chamic languages
Neuaramäisch --> Suryoyo
sury cl+ 0 *Neuassyrisch (Suryoyo = Semitic) [Syria, Turkey, Iraq]
gre/ell el 12 *Neugriechisch (Greek, Modern (1453- ) = Indo-European; Greek) [*Greece, Albania, Cyprus]
heb iw 4 *Neuhebräisch (Hebrew = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Israel]
Neuhochdeutsch --> German
Neuirisch --> Irish
Neuisländisch --> Icelandic
tpi pi 1 *Neumelanesisch (Tok Pisin = English-based creole) [*Papua-New Guinea]
Neumongolisch --> Mongolian
Neuniederdeutsch --> Low German
Neupersisch --> Persian
new *Newari (Newari = Sino-Tibetan) [Nepal]
nwc Newari, Old (Newari, Old = Sino-Tibetan) [Nepal]
Ngala --> Lingala
Ngola --> Kimbundu
Niam-Niam --> Zande languages
nia Nias (Nias = West Malayo-Polynesian) [East India]
nia *Nias-Sprache (Nias = West Malayo-Polynesian) [East India]
qaa Niederalemannisch (Niederalemannisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Niederdeutsch / Mittelniederdeutsch --> Middle Low German
nds dt+ *Niederdeutsch (Low German = Germanic) [Germany]
qra Niederfränkisch (Niederfränkisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Niederländisch / Mittelniederländisch --> Dutch, Middle (ca. 1050-1350)
dut nl 20 *Niederländisch (Dutch) [Netherlands, Belgium]
Niederpreußisch --> Ostniederdeutsch
dsb *Niedersorbisch (Lower Sorbian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Niederlausitz]
Niger-Kongo-Sprachen --> Niger-Kordofanian (Other)
nic Niger-Kordofanian (Other) (Niger-Kordofanian (Other))
nic *Nigerkordofanische Sprachen (Niger-Kordofanian (Other))
ssa Nilo-Saharan (Other) (Nilo-Saharan (Other))
ssa *Nilosaharanische Sprachen (Nilo-Saharan (Other))
niu *Niue <Sprache> (Niuean = Eastern Malayo-Polynesian) [Niue; Cook Islands]
niu Niuean (Niuean = Eastern Malayo-Polynesian) [Niue; Cook Islands]
Nivchisch --> Gilyak
Nivkh --> Gilyak
gily nv+ 0 *Niwchisch (Gilyak = Isolate) [Sachalin]
nqo N'ko (N'ko)
nyn 1 *Nkole-Sprache (Nyankole = Bantu) [Uganda]
Nkore <Bantu> --> Nyankole
nog Nogai (Nogai = Altaic)
sme Nord-Samisch (Northern Sami = Finno-Ugrian) [Scandinavia]
Nordarisch --> Khotanese
Nordbairisch --> Bairisch
frr *Nordfriesisch (North Frisian) [*Germany]
qoa Nordmährisch (Nordmährisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
qva Nordniedersächsisch (Nordniedersächsisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Nordobersächsisch --> Obersächsisch
norrois --> Old Norse
nai North American Indian (Other) (North American Indian (Other))
frr North Frisian (North Frisian) [*Germany]
sme Northern Sami (Northern Sami = Finno-Ugrian) [Scandinavia]
norvégien --> Norwegian
nor no 5 Norwegian (Norwegian = Indo-European; Germanic) [Norway]
Norwegian (Bokmål) --> Bokmål
nno Norwegian Bokmål (Norwegian Bokmål)
Norwegian (Nynorsk) --> Nynorsk
nno Norwegian Nynorsk (Norwegian Nynorsk)
nor no 5 *Norwegisch (Norwegian = Indo-European; Germanic) [Norway]
Nubasprachen --> Nubian languages
nub nu+ Nubian languages (Nubian languages)
nub nu+ *Nubische Sprachen (Nubian languages)
Nyamnyam --> Zande languages
nym 4 Nyamwezi (Nyamwezi = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Tanzania]
nym 4 *Nyamwezi-Sprache (Nyamwezi = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Tanzania]
Nyanja-Sprache --> Chichewa
Nyankole --> Nyankole
nyn 1 Nyankole (Nyankole = Bantu) [Uganda]
Nyankore --> Nyankole
Nyanya --> Chichewa
Nyasa --> Tonga (Nyasa)
Nyife --> Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
Nymylauisch --> Koryak
Nynorsk --> Norwegian Nynorsk
nno no Nynorsk (Nynorsk = Indo-European; Germanic) [Norway]
nyo 1 *Nyoro (Nyoro = Bantu) [Uganda]
Nzema --> Nzima
nzi 0 Nzima (Nzima = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire]
Oberösterreichisch --> Österreichisch
Oberrheinisch --> Niederalemannisch
qka Obersächsisch (Obersächsisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
hsb *Obersorbisch (Upper Sorbian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Oberlausitz]
Occidental --> *Interlingue
oci(lan) oc 4 Occitan (post 1500) (Occitan (post 1500)) [France]
OchiNdonga --> *Ndonga
Odri --> Oriya
Odulisch --> Yukaghir
qdf Österreichisch (Österreichisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Özbekisch --> Uzbek
Oigob --> Masai
xal qa+ 0 Oirat (Oirat = Altaic) [Mongolia; Russia]
Oirotisch --> Altaic
oji oa+ *Ojibwa-Sprache (Ojibwa = Algonquian) [Canada]
oci(lan) oc 4 *Okzitanisch (Occitan (post 1500)) [France]
olch ul+ 0 Olcha (Olcha = Tungus) [Siberia]
oldh he+ Old Hebrew (Old Hebrew = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic)
non np+ Old Norse (Old Norse)
peo pe+ Old Persian (ca. 600-400 B.C.) (Old Persian (ca. 600-400 B.C.))
Oltschaisch --> Olcha
Oraon --> Kurukh
kru 1 *Oraon-Sprache (Kurukh = Dravidian; North Dravidian) [India]
Orija-Sprache --> Oriya
ori or 31 Oriya (Oriya = Indo-European; Indo-Aryan) [India]
ori or 31 *Oriya-Sprache (Oriya = Indo-European; Indo-Aryan) [India]
orok ok+ 0 Orok (Orok = Tungusian) [Siberia, Japan]
orok ok+ 0 Orokisch (Orok = Tungusian) [Siberia, Japan]
orm(gal) om 8 Oromo (Oromo = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
osa Osage (Osage = Siouan) [USA]
osa *Osage-Sprache (Osage = Siouan) [USA]
Osetinisch --> Ossetian
Oshindonga --> *Ndonga
Osindonga --> *Ndonga
ota *Osmanisch (Turkish, Ottoman (1500-1928))
ossète --> Ossetian
oss os+ Ossetian (Ossetian = Indo-Iranian) [Iran]
Ossetic --> Ossetian
oss os+ *Ossetisch (Ossetian = Indo-Iranian) [Iran]
Ostaramäisch --> Syriac, Modern
rap *Osterinsel-Sprache (Rapanui) [Chile]
Osteskimoisch --> Inuktitut
qta Ostfälisch (Ostfälisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
qfa Ostfränkisch (Ostfränkisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
frs *Ostfriesisch (East Frisian)
chan oj+ 0 *Ostjakisch (Khanti = Finno-Ugrian) [Siberia]
Ostjaksamojedisch --> Selkup
qwa Ostniederdeutsch (Ostniederdeutsch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Ostnordisch --> Old Norse
Ostseeslawisch --> Kashubian
Ostyak --> Khanti
Oto-Mangue --> Otomian languages
oto *Otomangue-Sprachen (Otomian languages = Otomanguean) [Mexico]
oto Otomian languages (Otomian languages = Otomanguean) [Mexico]
Otopame-Sprachen --> Otomian languages
ougaritique --> Ugaritic
ouigour --> Uighur
ourdou --> *Urdu
ouzbek --> Uzbek
Ovambo --> *Ndonga
Pachto --> Pushto
Pahari --> Himachali
pal ph+ Pahlavi (Pahlavi)
Pahlewi --> Pahlavi
pau *Palau (Palauan = West Malayo-Polynesian) [Belau, Guam, East India]
pau Palauan (Palauan = West Malayo-Polynesian) [Belau, Guam, East India]
pli pb+ Pali (Pali = Indo-Aryan) [India]
pli pb+ *Pali (Pali = Indo-Aryan) [India]
pam 2 Pampanga (Pampanga = West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
pam 2 *Pampanggan-Sprache (Pampanga = West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
Panay-Hiligaynon --> Hiligaynon
pan pa 26 *Pandschabi-Sprache (Panjabi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Pakistan]
pag 2 Pangasinan (Pangasinan = West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
pag 2 Pangasinan <Sprache> (Pangasinan = West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
fan 2 *Pangwe-Sprache (Fang = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [West Africa]
pan pa 26 Panjabi (Panjabi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India, Pakistan]
pap *Papiamento (Papiamento = Spanish-based creole; Portuguese-based creole)
papoues --> Papuan (Other)
paa Papuan (Other) (Papuan (Other)) [East India]
paa *Papuasprachen (Andere) (Papuan (Other)) [East India]
Paschto --> Pushto
pus ps 17 *Paschtu (Pushto = Indo-European; Indo-Iranisch) [*Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran]
Pashto --> Pushto
Pasto --> Pushto
Pastu --> Pushto
Pehlewi --> Pahlavi
Pennsylvaniadeutsch --> Auslandsdeutsche Dialekte
perse --> Old Persian (ca. 600-400 B.C.)
per fa 34 Persian (Persian = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Iran, Afghanistan]
per fa 34 *Persisch (Persian = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Iran, Afghanistan]
Peul --> Fulah
qga Pfälzisch (Pfälzisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Pfälzisch-Lothringisch --> Pfälzisch
phénicien --> Phoenician
phi Philippine (Other) (Philippine (Other))
phi Philippinen-Austronesisch (Andere) (Philippine (Other))
phn Phoenician (Phoenician = Semitic)
phn Phönikisch (Phoenician = Semitic)
Phöwa --> Tibetan
Pidgin-Englisch <Papua-Neuguinea> --> Hiri Motu
came 2 *Pidgin-Englisch <Kamerun> (Cameroon Pidgin = English-based creole) [Cameroon]
fil Pilipino (Filipino)
bin 1 Pini (Bini = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Nigeria]
Plattdeutsch --> Low German
pohnpei --> Pohnpeian
pon 0 Pohnpeian (Pohnpeian = Micronesian) [Micronesia]
pol pl 44 Polish (Polish = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Poland]
pol pl 44 *Polnisch (Polish = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Poland]
Polonais --> Polish
mul mu+ Polyglott (Multiple languages)
Pomeranisch --> Kashubian
Pommersch --> Ostniederdeutsch
Ponape --> Pohnpeian
pon 0 *Ponapeanisch (Pohnpeian = Micronesian) [Micronesia]
portugais --> Portuguese
Portugiesisch-Kreolisch --> Creoles and Pidgins, Portuguese-based (Other)
por pt 170 *Portugiesisch (Portuguese = Indo-European; Romance) [*Brazil, *Portugal, *Angola]
por pt 170 Portuguese (Portuguese = Indo-European; Romance) [*Brazil, *Portugal, *Angola]
pra pr+ *Prakrit (Prakrit languages = Indo-Aryan)
pra pr+ Prakrit languages (Prakrit languages = Indo-Aryan)
Preußisch --> Ostniederdeutsch
Provençal --> Occitan (post 1500)
provençal ancien --> Provencal, Old (to 1500)
pro pz+ Provencal, Old (to 1500) (Provencal, Old (to 1500))
Provenzalisch <im weiteren Sinne> --> Occitan (post 1500)
Pu-yi --> *Zhuang
Pula-Sprache --> Fulah
Pulaar --> Fulah
Punjabi --> Panjabi
Puschtu --> Pushto
pus ps 17 Pushto (Pushto = Indo-European; Indo-Iranisch) [*Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran]
Pustu --> Pushto
Puynipet --> Pohnpeian
Qalqa --> Khalkha
que qu 8 Quechua (Quechua = South American; Andean-Equatorial) [*Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina]
que qu 8 *Quechua-Sprache (Quechua = South American; Andean-Equatorial) [*Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina]
Quichua --> Quechua
roh rm Raeto-Romance (Raeto-Romance) [Italy, *Switzerland]
roh rm *Rätoromanisch (Raeto-Romance) [Italy, *Switzerland]
raj ra 16 *Rajasthani (Rajasthani = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India]
Rajputani --> *Rajasthani
Rajstani --> *Rajasthani
Rapanuanisch --> Rapanui
rap Rapanui (Rapanui) [Chile]
rar Rarotongan (Rarotongan = Eastern Malayo-Polynesian) [New Zealand]
rar *Rarotonganisch (Rarotongan = Eastern Malayo-Polynesian) [New Zealand]
rhéto-roman --> Raeto-Romance
Ripuarisch --> Mittelfränkisch
Romaic --> Greek, Modern (1453- )
roa Romance (Other) (Romance (Other))
romanes --> Romance (Other)
Romani --> Romani
rom ri+ Romani (Romani)
rum/ron ro 26 Romanian (Romanian = Indo-European; Romance) [*Romania, Moldova]
roa Romanische Sprachen (andere) (Romance (Other))
loz *Rotse-Sprache (Lozi) [Zambia]
Rouk-Sprache --> Chuukese
roumain --> Romanian
Roundi --> Rundi
rum/ron ro 26 *Rumänisch (Romanian = Indo-European; Romance) [*Romania, Moldova]
Rumunisch --> Romanian
Runa-Simi --> Quechua
run rn 6 Rundi (Rundi = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Burundi]
run rn 6 *Rundi-Sprache (Rundi = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Burundi]
rusy rs+ *Rusinisch (Rusyn = Slavic) [Ukraine, Slovakia]
russe --> Russian
rus ru 170 Russian (Russian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Russia; Commonwealth of Independent States]
rus ru 170 *Russisch (Russian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Russia; Commonwealth of Independent States]
rusy rs+ Rusyn (Rusyn = Slavic) [Ukraine, Slovakia]
Ruthenian --> Rusyn
Ruthenisch --> Ukrainian
kin rw 9 *Rwanda-Sprache (Kinyarwanda = Bantu) [Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire]
Saamisch --> Sami languages
Saanisch --> Sami languages
kho *Sakisch (Khotanese = Iranian)
sal *Salish-Sprache (Salishan languages = North American) [British Columbia]
sal Salishan languages (Salishan languages = North American) [British Columbia]
Samar-Leyte --> Waray
samaritain --> Samaritan Aramaic
sam Samaritan Aramaic (Samaritan Aramaic)
sam *Samaritanisch (Samaritan Aramaic)
smi(lap) lp+ 0 Sami languages (Sami languages = Finno-Ugrian) [Scandinavia]
Samisch --> Sami languages
smo(sao) sm Samoan (Samoan = Polynesian) [*Samoa]
smo(sao) sm *Samoanisch (Samoan = Polynesian) [*Samoa]
samo sj+ Samojedic languages (Samojedic languages = Uralic)
samo sj+ *Samojedische Sprachen (Samojedic languages = Uralic)
Samtali --> *Santali
Sandal --> *Santali
sad 0 Sandawe (Sandawe = Khoe) [Tanzania]
sad 0 *Sandawe-Sprache (Sandawe = Khoe) [Tanzania]
sag sg Sango (Sango = Niger-Congo; Ngbandi) [*Central African Republic]
sag sg *Sango-Sprache (Sango = Niger-Congo; Ngbandi) [*Central African Republic]
Sangtal --> *Santali
san sa Sanskrit (Sanskrit)
san sa *Sanskrit (Sanskrit)
Santai --> *Santali
sat 5 *Santali (Santali = Afro-Asiatic; Munda) [India, Nepal, Bihar]
Santhiali --> *Santali
Saracholle --> Soninke
Sarakole --> Soninke
Sarakollé --> Soninke
Sarawule --> Soninke
sarde --> Sardinian
srd sr+ Sardinian (Sardinian = Indo-European) [Sardinien]
srd sr+ *Sardisch (Sardinian = Indo-European) [Sardinien]
sas Sasak (Sasak) [East India]
sas *Sassak (Sasak) [East India]
Satar --> *Santali
shn 2 *Schan-Sprache (Shan = Sino-Tibetan; Burmic) [Myanmar]
qma Schlesisch (Schlesisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
sna(sho) sn 7 *Schona-Sprache (Shona = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zimbabwe]
sco *Schottisch (Scots = Germanic)
Schottisch-Gälisch --> Gaelic (Scots)
qca Schwäbisch (Schwäbisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
swe sv 9 *Schwedisch (Swedish = Indo-European; Germanic) [*Sweden, Finland]
gsb Schweizerdeutsch (Swiss German = Deutsch / Dialekt)
sco Scots (Scots = Germanic)
Scots Gaelic --> Gaelic (Scots)
Sebuano --> *Cebuano
Sechuana --> Tswana
Secwana --> Tswana
See-Dajak --> Iban
selkoupe --> Selkup
sel 0 Selkup (Selkup = Samoyed) [Russia]
sel 0 *Selkupisch (Selkup = Samoyed) [Russia]
sem Semitic (Other) (Semitic (Other))
sem *Semitische Sprachen (Andere) (Semitic (Other))
Sentali --> *Santali
Sephardisch --> Ladino
Serawuli --> Soninke
serbe --> Serbian
srp/scc sc+ 21 Serbian (Serbian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Serbia; Balkan Europe]
srp/scc sc+ 21 *Serbisch (Serbian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Serbia; Balkan Europe]
Serbo-Croatian (Roman) --> Bosnian
Serbo-Croatian (Roman) --> Croatian
Serbo-Croatian --> Serbian
Serbokroatisch --> Croatian
Sereer --> Serer
Serekule --> Soninke
srr 0 Serer (Serer = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Senegal, Gambia]
Serer-Sin-Sprache --> Serer
srr 0 *Serer-Sprache (Serer = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Senegal, Gambia]
Sérère-Sprache --> Serer
Serrer-Sprache --> Serer
sgaw 2 Sgaw (Sgaw = Sino-Tibetan; Karen) [Myanmar]
shn 2 Shan (Shan = Sino-Tibetan; Burmic) [Myanmar]
sna(sho) sn 7 Shona (Shona = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Zimbabwe]
Siamese --> Thai
Siamesisch --> Thai
iii Sichuan Yi (Sichuan Yi = Sino-Tibetan) [*China]
iii Sichuan Yi (Sichuan Yi = Sino-Tibetan) [*China]
scn Sicilian Italian (Sicilian Italian = Indo-European) [Sizilien]
sid 1 *Sidamo (Sidamo = Cushitic) [Ethiopia]
Siebenbürgisch-Sächsisch --> Auslandsdeutsche Dialekte
sgn Sign languages (Sign languages)
bla 0 Siksika (Siksika = Algonquian) [Canada]
Silabe --> Soninke
snd sd 20 *Sindhi (Sindhi = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [India; Pakistan]
sin(snh) si 13 *Singhalesisch (Sinhalese = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Sri Lanka]
Singpho --> Kachin
sin(snh) si 13 Sinhalese (Sinhalese = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Sri Lanka]
Sinhalesisch --> Sinhalese
sit Sino-Tibetan (Other) (Sino-Tibetan (Other))
sit *Sinotibetische Sprachen (Andere) (Sino-Tibetan (Other))
Sinti --> Romani
sio Siouan languages (Siouan languages) [North America]
Siouanisch --> Siouan languages
sio *Sioux-Sprachen (Siouan languages) [North America]
scn *Sizilianisch (Sicilian Italian = Indo-European) [Sizilien]
den Slave (Slave = Athapascan)
den Slave (Athapaskische Sprachen) (Slave = Athapascan)
sla Slavic (Other) (Slavic (Other))
Slavische Sprachen --> Slavic (Other)
slavon d'église --> Church Slavic
sla *Slawische Sprachen (andere) (Slavic (Other))
slo/slk sk 5 Slovak (Slovak = Indo-European; Balto-Slavic) [*Slovakia]
slovaqe --> Slovak
slovène --> Slovenian
slv sl 2 Slovenian (Slovenian = Indo-European; Balto-Slavic) [*Slovenia]
slo/slk sk 5 *Slowakisch (Slovak = Indo-European; Balto-Slavic) [*Slovakia]
slv sl 2 *Slowenisch (Slovenian = Indo-European; Balto-Slavic) [*Slovenia]
sog Sogdian (Sogdian = Iranian (ext.))
sog *Sogdisch (Sogdian = Iranian (ext.))
Soghdisch --> Sogdian
Sojonisch --> Tuvinian
som so 8 *Somali (Somali = Afro-Asiatic; Cushitic) [*Somalia; Ethiopia; Kenya]
Songai --> Songhai
son Songhai (Songhai = Nilo-Saharan)
son *Songhai-Sprache (Songhai = Nilo-Saharan)
snk Soninke (Soninke = Niger-Senegal; Mande) [Senegal]
snk *Soninke-Sprache (Soninke = Niger-Senegal; Mande) [Senegal]
Soninkhe --> Soninke
mis Sonstige Sprachen (Miscellaneous (Other))
sorabe --> Sorbian (Other)
wen sb+ Sorbian (Other) (Sorbian (Other) = Slavic; West Slavic)
wen sb+ *Sorbisch (Sorbian (Other) = Slavic; West Slavic)
Sose-Sprache --> Mandingo
sotho du Nord --> Sotho, Northern
nso 3 Sotho, Northern (Sotho, Northern = Bantu) [Transvaal, South Africa]
sot(sso) st 4 Sotho, Southern (Sotho, Southern = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [South Africa, *Lesotho]
Sotho-Sprache --> Sotho, Southern
nso 3 *Sotho-Sprache (Nord) (Sotho, Northern = Bantu) [Transvaal, South Africa]
soundanais --> Sundanese
soussou --> *Susu
sai sp+ South American Indian (Other) (South American Indian (Other))
spa es 266 *Spanisch (Spanish = Indo-European; Romance) [Spain; Latin America]
spa es 266 Spanish (Spanish = Indo-European; Romance) [Spain; Latin America]
und Sprache nicht ermittelt (Undetermined)
srn Sranan (Sranan = Creoles and Pidgins, English-based)
srn Sranan (Sranan = Creoles and Pidgins, English-based)
Standard-Akan --> Akan
sot(sso) st 4 *Süd-Sotho-Sprache (Sotho, Southern = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [South Africa, *Lesotho]
Südamerikanische Indianersprachen --> South American Indian (Other)
Südbairisch --> Österreichisch
Südbairisch --> Bairisch
Südmittelbairisch --> Österreichisch
suédois --> Swedish
qea Südrheinfränkisch (Südrheinfränkisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Sugbuanon --> *Cebuano
suk 5 Sukuma (Sukuma = Bantu) [Tanzania, Benin]
suk 5 *Sukuma-Sprache (Sukuma = Bantu) [Tanzania, Benin]
sux sx+ Sumerian (Sumerian)
sux sx+ *Sumerisch (Sumerian)
sun su 25 Sundanese (Sundanese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
sun su 25 *Sundanesisch (Sundanese = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Indonesia]
sury cl+ 0 Suryoyo (Suryoyo = Semitic) [Syria, Turkey, Iraq]
Sussu-Sprache --> *Susu
sus *Susu (Susu = Niger-Congo; Mande)
Suthu --> Sotho, Southern
Suthu --> Tswana
swa sw 46 *Swahili (Swahili = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [*Kenia, *Tanzania, East-Africa]
ssw(swz) ss 1 Swati (Swati = Niger-Congo; Niger-Bantu; Nguni) [*Swaziland, South Africa]
Swazi --> Swati
ssw(swz) ss 1 Swazi (Swati = Niger-Congo; Niger-Bantu; Nguni) [*Swaziland, South Africa]
swe sv 9 Swedish (Swedish = Indo-European; Germanic) [*Sweden, Finland]
gsb Swiss German (Swiss German = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Syriac modern --> Suryoyo
syr sy+ Syriac, Modern (Syriac, Modern)
syriaque --> Syriac, Modern
syr sy+ *Syrisch (Syriac, Modern)
Syrjänisch --> Komi
tadjik --> Tajik
tgk(taj) tg 4 *Tadschikisch (Tajik = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Tajikistan, Uzbekistan]
Tadzikisch --> Tajik
tgl(tag) tl 17 Tagalog (Tagalog = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [*Philippines]
tgl(tag) tl 17 Tagalog (Tagalog = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [*Philippines]
tah Tahitian (Tahitian = Polynesian)
tah *Tahitisch (Tahitian = Polynesian)
tai Tai (Other) (Tai (Other))
Taiwanese --> Ho-lo-oe
tgk(taj) tg 4 Tajik (Tajik = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Tajikistan, Uzbekistan]
tamacheq --> Tamashek
Tamahak --> Tamashek
Tamaschek --> Tamashek
tmh tm+ 0 *Tamaseq (Tamashek = Berber; Tuareg) [West Sahara]
tmh tm+ 0 Tamashek (Tamashek = Berber; Tuareg) [West Sahara]
tama 3 *Tamazight (Tamazight = Afro-Asiatic; Berber) [Morocco, Azgeria]
tam ta 63 *Tamil (Tamil = Dravidian; South Dravidian) [India, *Sri Lanka, Malaysia]
tamoul --> *Tamil
Tamul --> *Tamil
Tarawa-Sprache --> Gilbertese
tat(tar) tt 8 Tatar (Tatar = Altaic; Turkik) [Russia]
tat(tar) tt 8 *Tatarisch (Tatar = Altaic; Turkik) [Russia]
tchèque --> Czech
tchetchène --> Chechen
TchiTchewa --> Chichewa
tchouvache --> Chuvash
Tegrennya --> Tigrinya
Tekarir --> Tukolor
télougou --> Telugu
tel te 66 Telugu (Telugu = Dravidian; South-Central Dravidian) [India]
tel te 66 Telugu (Telugu = Dravidian; South-Central Dravidian) [India]
Temazight --> *Tamazight
Temen --> Timne
tem 1 *Temne (Timne = Atlantic) [Sierra Leone]
Terena --> Tereno
ter 0 Tereno (Tereno = Maipuran; Arawak) [Brazil]
ter 0 *Tereno-Sprache (Tereno = Maipuran; Arawak) [Brazil]
teso 1 *Teso (Teso = Nilo-Saharan; Nilotic) [Uganda, Kenya]
tet *Tetum (Tetum = Austronesian) [East Timor]
tha th 15 Thai (Thai = Sino-Tibetan; Tai) [*Thailand]
thaies --> Tai (Other)
tha th 15 *Thailändisch (Thai = Sino-Tibetan; Tai) [*Thailand]
Thaisprachen --> Thai
tai Thaisprachen (Andere) (Tai (Other))
Thlingchadinne --> Dogrib
Thonga --> Tonga (Nyasa)
qja Thüringisch (Thüringisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
tib/bod bo 6 Tibetan (Tibetan = Sino-Tibetan; Tibeto-Burman) [Tibet; China; Nepal]
tib/bod bo 6 *Tibetisch (Tibetan = Sino-Tibetan; Tibeto-Burman) [Tibet; China; Nepal]
Tibetochinesische Sprachen --> Sino-Tibetan (Other)
Tigrai --> Tigrinya
tig Tigre (Tigre = Semitic) [Ethiopia]
tig Tigre (Tigre = Semitic) [Ethiopia]
tigrigna --> Tigrinya
tir ti 4 *Tigrinja-Sprache (Tigrinya = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Eritrea, Tigre]
tir ti 4 Tigrinya (Tigrinya = Afro-Asiatic; Semitic) [*Eritrea, Tigre]
tem 1 Timne (Timne = Atlantic) [Sierra Leone]
tiv 2 Tiv (Tiv = Niger-Congo; Bantoid) [Nigeria, Cameroon]
tiv 2 *Tiv-Sprache (Tiv = Niger-Congo; Bantoid) [Nigeria, Cameroon]
Tivi --> Tiv
Tjamorro-Sprache --> Chamorro
tli tj+ Tlingit (Tlingit = Na-Dene) [Canada]
tli tj+ *Tlingit-Sprache (Tlingit = Na-Dene) [Canada]
tpi pi 1 Tok Pisin (Tok Pisin = English-based creole) [*Papua-New Guinea]
tkl Tokelau (Tokelau) [New Zealand]
tkl *Tokelauanisch (Tokelau) [New Zealand]
Tokkaru --> *Dogri
tog 3 Tonga (Nyasa) (Tonga (Nyasa) = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Mozambique, South Africa]
ton to Tonga (Tonga Islands) (Tonga (Tonga Islands) = Polynesian) [*Tonga Islands]
ton to *Tongaisch (Tonga (Tonga Islands) = Polynesian) [*Tonga Islands]
tongan (iles Tonga) --> Tonga (Tonga Islands)
Toskisch --> Albanian
Toubakai --> Soninke
Toucouleur --> Tukolor
touva --> Tuvinian
Truk --> Chuukese
chk(tru) 0 *Trukesisch (Chuukese = Trukik) [Micronesia]
Tsalagi --> *Cherokee
chg cg+ Tschagataisch (Chagatai = Turkik)
Tscham --> Chamic languages
cze cs 12 *Tschechisch (Czech = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Czech Republic]
chm cm+ 0 *Tscheremissisch (Mari = Finno-Ugrian) [Wolga]
cerk ce+ 0 *Tscherkessisch (Cherkessian = West Caucasian) [Caucasus]
Tscherokesen-Sprache --> *Cherokee
che 1 *Tschetschenisch (Chechen = Caucasian) [Checheniya]
Tschibtscha-Sprache --> Chibcha
chuk tc+ 0 *Tschuktschisch (Chukchee = Palaeo-Asian) [Kamchatka]
chv cv+ 2 *Tschuwaschisch (Chuvash = Altaic; Turkik) [Russia]
Tschwana --> Tswana
Tshi --> Twi
tsi Tsimshian (Tsimshian = Isolate) [British Columbia]
tsi Tsimshian (Tsimshian = Isolate) [British Columbia]
tso ts 3 Tsonga (Tsonga = Niger-Congo) [Mosambique, Transvaal, Zimbabwe]
tog 3 *Tsonga-Sprache (Tonga (Nyasa) = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Mozambique, South Africa]
tso ts 3 *Tsonga-Sprache (Tsonga = Niger-Congo) [Mosambique, Transvaal, Zimbabwe]
Tsotsil --> Tzotzil
tsn(tsw) tn 4 Tswana (Tswana = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [*Botswana; South Africa]
tsn(tsw) tn 4 *Tswana-Sprache (Tswana = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [*Botswana; South Africa]
Tuaregsprache --> Tamashek
Türkeitürkisch --> Turkish
tur tr 59 *Türkisch (Turkish = Altaic; Turkik) [Turkey]
Türkisch / Osmanisches Reich --> Turkish, Ottoman (1500-1928)
Türkmenisch --> Turkmen
tuko 2 Tukolor (Tukolor = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Senegal]
tuko 2 *Tukulor (Tukolor = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [Senegal]
tulu 2 *Tulu (Tulu = Dravidian; South Dravidian) [India]
tum 2 Tumbuka (Tumbuka = Bantu) [Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia]
tum 2 *Tumbuka-Sprache (Tumbuka = Bantu) [Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia]
turc --> Turkish
turc ottoman --> Turkish, Ottoman (1500-1928)
tur tr 59 Turkish (Turkish = Altaic; Turkik) [Turkey]
ota Turkish, Ottoman (1500-1928) (Turkish, Ottoman (1500-1928))
tuk tk 3 Turkmen (Turkmen = Altaic; Turkik) [*Turkmenistan, Afghanistan]
tuk tk 3 *Turkmenisch (Turkmen = Altaic; Turkik) [*Turkmenistan, Afghanistan]
Turkoman --> Turkmen
tvl Tuvalu (Tuvalu) [Polynesia]
Tuvalu-Sprache --> Tuvalu
tyv ty+ Tuvinian (Tuvinian = Turkik) [Russia]
Tuvinisch --> Tuvinian
tyv ty+ *Tuwinisch (Tuvinian = Turkik) [Russia]
twi tw 3 Twi (Twi = Niger-Congo; Kwa) [Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire]
Twi-Fante --> Akan
Twi-Fante --> Akan
tzot tz+ Tzotzil (Tzotzil = Maya) [Central America]
udic ud+ 0 Udi (Udi = Caucasian) [Azerbaijan, Georgia]
udic ud+ 0 *Udisch (Udi = Caucasian) [Azerbaijan, Georgia]
udm um+ 0 Udmurt (Udmurt = Finno-Ugrian) [Russia]
udm um+ 0 *Udmurtisch (Udmurt = Finno-Ugrian) [Russia]
Üke --> Tibetan
uga Ugaritic (Ugaritic = Semitic)
uga *Ugaritisch (Ugaritic = Semitic)
Ugrofinnische Sprachen --> Finno-Ugrian (Other)
uig ui+ 8 Uighur (Uighur = Altaic; Turkik) [China]
uig ui+ 8 *Uigurisch (Uighur = Altaic; Turkik) [China]
ukr uk 41 Ukrainian (Ukrainian = Indo-European; Balto-Slavic) [Ukraine, Russia, Poland]
ukr uk 41 *Ukrainisch (Ukrainian = Indo-European; Balto-Slavic) [Ukraine, Russia, Poland]
Ulch --> Olcha
olch ul+ 0 Ultschaisch (Olcha = Tungus) [Siberia]
umb 4 Umbundu (Umbundu = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [Angola]
Unanganisch --> Aleut
und Unbestimmte Sprache (Undetermined language)
und Undetermined language (Undetermined language)
hun hu 15 *Ungarisch (Hungarian = Uralic; Finno-Ugrian) [Hungary]
hsb Upper Sorbian (Upper Sorbian = Indo-European; Slavic) [Oberlausitz]
ural Ural-Altaic (other) (Ural-Altaic (other))
ural *Uralaltaische Sprachen (Ural-Altaic (other))
urd ur 57 *Urdu (Urdu = Indo-European; Indo-Iranian) [*Pakistan, India]
Urjanchai --> Tuvinian
Urundi --> Rundi
uzb uz 18 *Usbekisch (Uzbek = Altaic; Turkik) [*Uzbekistan]
Utkali --> Oriya
uzb uz 18 Uzbek (Uzbek = Altaic; Turkik) [*Uzbekistan]
vai Vai (Vai = Niger-Congo; Mande) [Liberia]
vai *Vai-Sprache (Vai = Niger-Congo; Mande) [Liberia]
Vaitupu --> Tuvalu
Vanuata / Pidgin-Englisch --> Bislama
Vatjan --> Votic
Vei-Sprache --> Vai
ven ve 0 Venda (Venda = Bantu) [Zimbabwe, South-Africa]
ven ve 0 *Venda-Sprache (Venda = Bantu) [Zimbabwe, South-Africa]
veps wp+ 0 Veps (Veps = Finno-Ugrian; Balto-Finnic) [Russia (Europe)]
Vepsisch --> Veps
mis Verschiedene Sprachen (Miscellaneous languages)
vie vi 67 Vietnamese (Vietnamese = Austro-Asiatic; Mon Khmer) [*Vietnam]
vie vi 67 *Vietnamesisch (Vietnamese = Austro-Asiatic; Mon Khmer) [*Vietnam]
Viti-Sprache --> Fijian
Vodisch --> Votic
Vogul --> Mansi
Vogulisch --> Mansi
vol vo *Volapük (Volapük = Kunstsprache)
Vorpommersch --> Ostniederdeutsch
vote --> Votic
vot vo+ Votic (Votic = Uralic; Balto-Finnic)
Votisch --> Votic
Votjakisch --> Udmurt
Votyak --> Udmurt
Waganda --> Ganda
Wakamba --> *Kamba
wak Wakash-Sprachen (Wakashan languages = North American) [British Columbia]
wak Wakashan languages (Wakashan languages = North American) [British Columbia]
Wakashanisch --> Wakashan languages
Wakikuyu --> Kikuyu
Wakore --> Soninke
wal 2 Walamo-Sprache (Wolayta = Afro-Asiatic; Omotic) [*Ethiopia]
Walisisch --> Welsh
war 3 Waray (Waray = Austronesian; West Malayo-Polynesian) [Philippines]
Waray-Waray --> Waray
was 0 Washo (Washo = North American Indian) [USA]
bel be 10 *Weißrussisch (Byelorussian = Indo-European; Slavic) [*Belarus]
Weißruthenisch --> Byelorussian
Welamo --> Wolayta
wel/cym cy Welsh (Welsh = Celtic) [*Wales]
Wendisch --> Sorbian (Other)
veps wp+ 0 *Wepsisch (Veps = Finno-Ugrian; Balto-Finnic) [Russia (Europe)]
Westaramäisch --> Samaritan Aramaic
Westböhmisch --> Bairisch
Westbulgarisch <Makedonisch> --> Macedonian
Western Panjabi --> Lahnda
qsa Westfälisch (Westfälisch = Deutsch / Dialekt)
Westnordisch --> Old Norse
Wienerisch --> Österreichisch
Wodisch --> Votic
mans wg+ 0 *Wogulisch (Mansi = Finno-Ugrian) [Siberia]
Wolaitta --> Wolayta
Wolayta --> Wolayta
wal 2 Wolayta (Wolayta = Afro-Asiatic; Omotic) [*Ethiopia]
Wolgatatarisch --> Tatar
wol wo 6 Wolof (Wolof = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [*Senegal, Gambia]
wol wo 6 *Wolof-Sprache (Wolof = Niger-Congo; West Atlantic) [*Senegal, Gambia]
vot vo+ *Wotisch (Votic = Uralic; Balto-Finnic)
Wotjakisch --> Udmurt
Wu --> Chinese
xho xh 7 Xhosa (Xhosa = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [South Africa]
xho xh 7 *Xhosa-Sprache (Xhosa = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [South Africa]
Xosa --> Xhosa
sah jk+ 0 Yakut (Yakut = Turkik) [Siberia]
Yallof --> Wolof
yao Yao (Yao = Bantu)
yao *Yao-Sprache (Yao = Bantu)
yap 0 Yap (Yap = Micronesian) [Micronesia]
yap 0 Yap (Yap = Micronesian) [Micronesia]
Yapese --> Yap
yapois --> Yap
Yaunde-Sprache --> *Ewondo
Yi --> Chinese
yid ji 3 Yiddish (Yiddish = Indo-European; Germanic) [Israel, Central Europe, USA]
yor yo 20 Yoruba (Yoruba = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Nigeria, Benin]
yor yo 20 *Yoruba-Sprache (Yoruba = Niger-Congo; Benue-Congo) [Nigeria, Benin]
Yuedialekt --> Chinese
Yueh --> Chinese
Yueyu --> Chinese
yuka ju+ 0 Yukaghir (Yukaghir = Isolate) [Siberia]
ypk Yupik languages (Yupik languages = Eskimosprache)
ypk *Yupik-Sprache (Yupik languages = Eskimosprache)
Zaherma --> *Dyerma
znd 2 Zande languages (Zande languages = Ubangi) [Central Africa, Congo]
znd 2 *Zande-Sprache (Zande languages = Ubangi) [Central Africa, Congo]
zap za+ Zapotec (Zapotec = Otomangue) [Oaxaca (Mexico)]
zap za+ *Zapotekisch (Zapotec = Otomangue) [Oaxaca (Mexico)]
Zarma --> *Dyerma
zza Zaza (Zaza = Iranian languages)
zza Zaza-Sprache (Zaza = Iranian languages)
Zebuano --> *Cebuano
Zeichensprache --> Sign languages
Zema --> Nzima
zen 0 Zenaga (Zenaga = Berber) [Mauritania]
Zentralladinisch --> Ladino dolomitico
Zerma --> *Dyerma
zha 2 *Zhuang (Zhuang = Sino-Tibetan) [China SW]
rom ri+ *Zigeunersprache (Romani)
Zimbrisch --> Bairisch
tzot tz+ *Zotzil-Sprache (Tzotzil = Maya) [Central America]
zoulou --> Zulu
zul zu 9 *Zulu-Sprache (Zulu = Niger-Congo; Bantu) [South Africa]
zun Zuni (Zuni = Isolate) [New Mexico]
zun *Zuni-Sprache (Zuni = Isolate) [New Mexico]


Verwendete Quellen:
 1. Encyclopedia of language and linguistics / Ed. R.E.Asher. - Oxford:
     Pergamon , 1994. 10v.
     (Insbes. Liste "Languages of the World" in Vol.10)


 2. Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. - 1989.
    (Insbes. "Macropedia" Vol.22)


 3. Metzler Lexikon Sprache
    (Lieferte die Bezeichnungen, die in der Linguistik zur Zeit üblich
    sind, sowie viele Originalnamen)


 4. Sprachen / H.F. Wendt. - Frankfurt : Fischer, 1961. 
    (Das Fischer Lexikon)
    (War trotz des Alters in manchen Fällen noch hilfreich wegen z.B.
    veralteter Schreibweisen)


 5. Atlas of the world's languages. - London : Routledge, 1994.



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B. Eversberg
UB Braunschweig, 1998-03-19, rev. 2007-10-25